J Interdiscip Dentistry
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Ozone therapy in dentistry: A literature review
Bikash Pattanaik, Dinesh Jetwa, Seema Pattanaik, Sachin Manglekar, Dinesh N Naitam, Anurag Dani
July-December 2011, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85024  
This review of literature is an attempt to summarize different modalities of ozone application in dentistry. Ozone gas has a high oxidation potential and is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. It also has the capacity to stimulate blood circulation, platelets, and immune response. Ozone is used in dentistry in gaseous, ozonated water and as ozonated oils. Ozone was shown to be biocompatible and is used in all aspects of dentistry. It has been shown to stimulate remineralization of recent caries-affected teeth and is used as a preventive therapy in caries, root caries, and intracanal irrigants in endodontic treatment. It has been used in treatment of alveolitis, avascular osteonecrosis of the jaw, and herpes virus infection. It also inhibits plaque formation and can be used as an adjuvant in periodontal surgical and maintenance phase. Ozone has also been used in dental unit water line to disinfect water. Advantage of ozone therapy is it is an atraumatic, biologically based treatment. While laboratory studies suggest a promising potential of ozone in dentistry, less number of clinical studies were documented. More number of randomized, controlled trials need to be conducted to determine the precise indications and guidelines to treat various dental pathologies with this promising medical agent.
  9 24,854 3,412
INVITED REVIEW
An overview of vital teeth bleaching
Sonal Bakul Joshi
January-April 2016, 6(1):3-13
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.188155  
The virtue of "the perfect smile" is an easily achievable task with a better understanding of materials and diseases along with advances within the technology. Discolored teeth can often be corrected totally or partially by bleaching. Since bleaching is conservative, noninvasive, and inexpensive, it is the most opted treatment protocol by the masses. To achieve instant whitening with no risks and relapse, there have been developments of innovative technologies and promising products. This article aims to keep in pace with these newer trends and to provide an insight on the present day clinical challenges of vital tooth bleaching.
  8 19,178 2,310
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class V cavities using various glass ionomer cements: An in vitro study
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Jaya Gupta, Vidya Saraswathi, Vasudev Ballal, Shashi Rashmi Acharya
September-December 2012, 2(3):164-169
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113245  
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the microleakage of nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer restorative (nano-filled RMGI) in comparison with that of conventional glass ionomer cement (CGIC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Materials and Methods: Forty-five standardized Class V cavity preparations were prepared on sound extracted human molar teeth. Teeth were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 15 teeth each and restored as follows: Group 1, CGIC; Group 2, RMGIC; and Group 3, nano-filled RMGI. The specimens were placed in a solution of 2% Rhodamine-B dye for 24 h at room temperature under vacuum. Staining along the tooth restoration interface was recorded. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in dye leakage between all the three restorative materials for occlusal margins (P = 0.464). Group 3 showed significantly less microleakage compared to Group 1 (P = 0.007) and Group 2 (P = 0.040) at the gingival margins. The degree of microleakage in the gingival margins of each group was more than that found in occlusal margins. Conclusions: No material was able to completely eliminate microleakage at enamel, dentin, or cementum margin. Nano-filled RMGI showed least microleakage compared to other two cements at gingival margins. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Cervical lesions have been a restorative challenge for dentists for many years.
  • An interdisciplinary treatment approach is the appropriate choice in cases where there is gingival recession and cervical lesions.
  • Glass ionomer cements have been commonly used for restoration of cervical lesions.
  • Nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer cement can be used for the restoration of cervical lesions, as it has a better marginal sealing ability compared to conventional glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.
  8 10,426 1,364
REVIEW ARTICLES
Gingival displacement in prosthodontics: A critical review of existing methods
Krishna D Prasad, Chethan Hegde, Gaurav Agrawal, Manoj Shetty
July-December 2011, 1(2):80-86
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85023  
Tremendous progress has been made in procedures for making fixed prosthodontic impressions over the past few decades. A common objective for impressions and interim crowns or fixed dental prostheses is to register the prepared abutments and finish lines accurately. For all impression procedures, the gingival tissue must be displaced to allow the subgingival finish lines to be registered. Retraction is the temporary displacement of the gingival tissue away from the prepared teeth. This article discusses the current methods that are applied for displacement of gingival tissues so that adequate amount of unprepared tooth structure can be recorded with least distortion of impression material as well as minimal damage to attachment apparatus of the tooth. In addition to this, gingival displacement techniques around implants and for computer aided design/computer added manufacturing (CAD/CAM) based restorations have been discussed. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search any studies involving gingival retraction techniques. The keywords used were gingival retraction, gingival displacement, gingival retraction in implants and retraction cord. Gingival retraction holds an indispensable place during soft tissue management before an impression is made. Swift increase in research work in the recent past leaves no option for a clinician, but to be updated and to possess optimum knowledge to rationalize the use of materials and techniques that are employed for gingival displacement in proximity to both teeth as well as implants.
  8 38,403 7,307
Periodontal biotype: Basics and clinical considerations
Rucha Shah, NK Sowmya, Raison Thomas, Dhoom Singh Mehta
January-April 2016, 6(1):44-49
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.188172  
Gingival/periodontal biotype is now known to influence the indications and outcomes of various therapies routinely performed in a dental clinic. The delicate thin biotype is more susceptible to injury and responds in a different way clinically as compared to the sturdier thick biotype. Assessment, identification, and indicated treatment considerations are now becoming the key to achieve predictable results, good esthetics, and stability of soft tissue margins. This review describes the various classifications, methods of assessment and clinical considerations for both the thick and thin tissue biotypes. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry In the era of evidence-based interdisciplinary dentistry, none of the dental disciplines are mutually exclusive. The treatment plan, treatment response, and prognosis of dental procedures vary greatly between teeth with different biotypes. Hence, the knowledge and assessment of gingival/periodontal biotype has become an important routine in clinical decision-making.
  7 21,836 2,688
CASE REPORTS
A magnetically retained cheek plumper in a maxillary single complete denture: A clinical report
Sri Ram Venkatachalapathy, Gopi Naveen Chander, Padmashini Gnanam
January-April 2019, 9(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_37_18  
Facial esthetics plays an important role in determining the psychology of patients. The loss of oral structures primarily affects the appearance in the lower half of the face. There are an increased rate of resorption of the alveolar ridges and a decrease in the muscle tonicity, both of which leads to sinking of cheeks. Rehabilitating a completely edentulous patient not only dentally but also facially will bring about an esthetic change. This leads to an increase in the patient's self-confidence and their social interactions. This clinical report introduces a simple noninvasive cost-effective technique to improve the dental and facial appearance using a detachable cheek plumper which is attached to the denture by neodymium close-field magnets.
  6 3,870 446
INVITED REVIEW
Single tooth implants: Pretreatment considerations and pretreatment evaluation
Vidya Kamalaksh Shenoy
September-December 2012, 2(3):149-157
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113239  
Today, implants are considered as a first treatment option to replace missing teeth due to the considerable advantages over the other available options. The ultimate goal of implant treatment is to restore natural esthetics, function, long term health, and patient comfort. Hence, case selection and treatment planning are very crucial to achieve longevity and predictability of the restoration. This article presents a step-by-step protocol for gathering and analyzing the various factors at the pretreatment evaluation stage to set the groundwork for a dentist to consider implant as a restorative option. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • To help the restorative dentist to identify the ideal implant receptor site.
  • Sound periodontal and restorative status is prerequisite to consider implant treatment as an option.
  • Restorative driven implant placement is paramount for overall integrity of the dentition.
  6 100,994 8,685
Periodontal considerations determining the design and location of margins in restorative dentistry
Arvind Shenoy, Nina Shenoy, Roopa Babannavar
January-April 2012, 2(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94184  
The first and most basic objective of restorative dentistry is preservation of the tooth structure. However, for the long-term survival of restoration the periodontium must also remain healthy or vice versa. The connective tissue of the attachment apparatus consists of three-dimensionally oriented fibers connecting firmly the tooth structures to the surrounding gingiva. Both the epithelial as well as connective tissue attachment contribute to a 'protection mechanism' in a most challenging area where the natural tooth penetrates the ectodermal integrity of the body. The attainment of this objective would be far less complex if it could be considered independent of restoration of function, comfort and esthetics, but such is not the case. The latter objectives usually require sophisticated restorative dentistry as often such esthetic restorations require placement of intra-crevicular margins without compromising on the periodontal health.
  6 63,528 5,921
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nanotechnology: The future
T.S.V Satyanarayana, Rathika Rai
July-December 2011, 1(2):93-100
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85026  
The challenge to our profession today is to improve the quality of oral health while overcoming both extrinsic and intrinsic factors which may adversely affect our progress toward achieving this goal. Nanotechnology which is fast developing, its name reverberating in almost every field, is also making and is set to transform dentistry in a huge way. This article tries to give an insight of the application of nanotechnology in dentistry using both top down and bottom up approach, recent development of nano products with superior quality, helical rosette nanotubes as a bone substitute, surface treatment of implant, dentifrobot, improved diagnostic instruments, (biomarkers, stem cell imaging in MRI) precise drug delivery system, controlled radiation therapy and bio nano sensors for cancer treatment, the near to achieve future ground breaking realities of development of bionic mandible, nanorobots, respirocytes, microbiovore, cytorobots, karyorobots, their effect on dentistry and medicine, and the possible risk factors and the ethical concerns to be looked into for application of nanotechnology in dentistry.
  6 17,669 2,314
Pulse oximetry and laser doppler flowmetry for diagnosis of pulpal vitality
Dakshita Joy Vaghela, Ashish Amit Sinha
January-June 2011, 1(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77191  
The usual pulpal diagnostic instruments have been shown to be unreliable in diagnosing the pulpal status of the teeth following a traumatic injury, especially for teeth with immature root formation and open apex. Compounding the problem with these testing methods is that they all are very subjective, dependant on cooperation and understanding of the situation by the patient, which can lead to a further difficulty in cases involving young children. It is important to note that the usual pulp vitality tests provide information only about the presence or absence of nerve receptors in the pulp and not about the pulpal blood supply. Recent efforts for assessing pulpal circulation have involved the use of laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry. Though both methods are in their infancy and are not yet ready for general clinical applications, but hopefully before long, these technologies will become part of dentists' diagnostic armamentaria. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for Pulse Oximetry featured 2196 articles; in dentistry-121 articles and for Laser Doppler Flowmetry-932 articles and in dentistry-18 articles. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles, author names, and contemporary endodontic texts. A review is presented on the key developments in the arena of these pulp-tests to familiarize the modern dentists with the new advances in endodontic diagnosis.
  6 32,473 3,319
BASIC RESEARCH
Royal Jelly Antimicrobial Activity against Periodontopathic Bacteria
Dale Coutinho, Sowmya Nagur Karibasappa, Dhoom Singh Mehta
January-April 2018, 8(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_72_17  
Background: Royal jelly (RJ) is a milky white highly viscous secretion from the salivary gland of the worker hive bees. RJ is a nutritive secretion that acts as biocatalyst in cell regeneration processes within the human body and exhibits antimicrobial effects. Materials and Methods: RJ antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic (American type cell culture) bacteria was investigated “in vitro.” Bacterial strains tested were Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Minimum inhibitory concentration for the strains tested was determined using the method of broth dilution with the RJ sample in serial concentrations. Results: The minimum bactericidal concentration values were identical and showed bactericidal effect in the range between 12.5 and 100 μg/ml, suggesting that periodontal pathogens tested were susceptible to RJ. Conclusion: Results showed that the inhibitory effects on Pg and Pi at different concentrations demonstrated concurrent similarity, whereas higher concentrations were necessary to inhibit the growth of Aa and Fn. However, the requirement for a standardized method for quality evaluation of RJ, i.e., qualitative, quantitative, and biological activity is a necessity, and its dosage and safety must be tested before its possible in vivo application.
  5 3,877 430
CASE REPORTS
Light weight maxillary complete denture: A case report using a simplified technique with thermocol
Vibha Shetty, Sivaranjani Gali, Smitha Ravindran
January-June 2011, 1(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77208  
The success of a complete denture relies on the principles of retention, stability and support. The prosthodontist's skill lies in applying these principles efficiently in critical situations. Severely resorbed maxillary edentulous ridges that are narrow and constricted with increased inter ridge space provide decreased support, retention and stability. The consequent weight of the processed denture only compromises them further. This article describes a case report of an edentulous patient with resorbed ridges where a simplified technique of fabricating a light weight maxillary complete denture was used for preservation of denture bearing areas.
  5 15,676 1,698
Platelet rich fibrin: A promising approach for root coverage
Aravind P Kumar, Bennete Fernandes, C Surya
July-December 2011, 1(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85033  
Platelet rich fibrin is a novel treatment option available for various mucogingival defects with varied outcome. Although it is as its infancy, the best part of platelet-rich fibrin is acquirement of optimal esthetic results with excellent soft tissue contour and texture. This case reports highlights the usage of platelet rich fibrin membrane for the treatment of mucogingival defects such as gingival recession.
  5 7,096 1,189
INVITED REVIEW
Endo-perio lesion: A dilemma from 19 th until 21 st century
Abhishek Parolia, Toh Choo Gait, Isabel C. C.M. Porto, Kundabala Mala
January-April 2013, 3(1):2-11
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.120514  
The interrelationship between endodontic and periodontal diseases has been a subject of speculation, confusion and controversy for many years. Pulpal and periodontal problems are responsible for more than 50% of tooth mortality today. An endo-perio lesion can have a varied pathogenesis which ranges from quite simple to relatively complex one. These lesions often present challenges to the clinician as far as diagnosis and prognosis of the involved teeth are concerned. It is very essential to make a correct diagnosis so that the appropriate treatment can be provided. To make a correct diagnosis the clinician should have a thorough understanding and scientific knowledge of these lesions and may need to perform restorative, endoontic or periodontal therapy, either singly or in combination to treat them. Therefore, this presentation will highlight the diagnostic, clinical guidelines and decision-making in the treatment of these lesions from an Endodontist's point of view to achieve the best outcome. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Perio-endo lesions are very complex in nature and can have a varied pathogenesis.
  • Treatment decision-making and prognosis depend primarily on the diagnosis of the specific endodontic and/or periodontal diseases.
  • To have the best prognosis, clinician should refer the case to various areas of specialization, to perform restorative, endodontic or periodontal therapy, either singly or in combination. Therefore, to achieve the best outcome for these lesions, a multi-disciplinary approach should be involved.
  5 36,753 5,184
REVIEW ARTICLES
Acetal resin as an esthetic clasp material
K Lekha, NP Savitha, Meshramkar Roseline, Ramesh K Nadiger
January-April 2012, 2(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94185  
Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are an effective and affordable treatment option for partial edentulism. Restoration of esthetics is an important function of RPD and it determines the success of the treatment. The goal of achieving optimal esthetics - while maintaining retentive integrity, stability, and protecting the health of the tooth - is the most difficult task. The traditional use of the metal clasp like cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), gold, stainless steel, and titanium hampers esthetics, since its obvious display conflicts with patient's prosthetic confidentiality. Acetal resin (polyoxymethylene or POM), a thermoplastic resin, may be used as an alternative denture clasp material. This material was promoted primarily on the basis of superior esthetics, which allowed the clasps to better match the color of abutment tooth. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search original research articles, case reports, and other reviews about acetal resin. The keywords used were acetal resin, esthetic, clasp, removable partial denture, thermoplastic, metal free framework. This article is the result of a literature study on acetal resin clasp material for conventional RPD.
  5 18,074 2,157
CASE REPORTS
Combined endodontic - Periodontal lesion: A clinical dilemma
Pushpendra Kumar Verma, Ruchi Srivastava, KK Gupta, Amitabh Srivastava
July-December 2011, 1(2):119-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85034  
Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. Lesions of the periodontal ligament and adjacent alveolar bone may originate from infections of the periodontium or tissues of the dental pulp. Periradicular bone loss secondary to endodontic pathosis is typically seen in teeth with necrotic pulps. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is not only to maintain the natural dentition, but also to restore lost periodontium. Combined periodontal and endodontic diseases involve the periodontal attachment apparatus. The treatment of endodontic-periodontal combined lesions requires both endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative procedures. With advancements in new techniques and materials different treatment choices are available, providing a superior prognosis. This article includes case reports of combined endo-perio lesions which were first treated with conventional endodontic therapy and then followed by periodontal surgery. This combined treatment resulted in a radiographical evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function to the teeth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion.
  4 18,062 2,073
Surgical esthetic correction for gingival pigmentation: Case series
Shilpi S Shah
September-December 2012, 2(3):195-200
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113259  
Gingival pigmentation is a major concern for a large number of patients visiting the dentist. The patients with excessive gingival display and pigmentation are more concerned esthetically. Most pigmentation is caused by five primary pigments out of which melanin shows the maximum incidence rate. Melanin hyper pigmentation usually does not present as a medical problem, but patients may complain about their unesthetic black gums. The gingiva is the most frequently pigmented intraoral tissue, with the highest rate observed in the area of the incisors Esthetic periodontal plastic surgery is a boon in patients having "dark gums" and "gummy smile." This article offers a retrospective case series of gingival depigmentation by epithelial excision using scalpel. Out of the several techniques employed for depigmentation, the surgical technique using scalpel is still the first and most popular technique. Experience of 4 years is put forward with critical analysis of the surgical technique including the various advantages and disadvantages. This is a case report representing a simple surgical technique of de-epithelization which has been successfully used to treat gingival hyperpigmentation caused by excessive melanin deposition and highlights the relevance of an esthetically pleasing smile especially in smile conscious individuals. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Gingival hyper pigmentation is a very common esthetic complaint reported by patients in various fields of dentistry. Through this case series the dentists can ascertain the various types of techniques mentioned in the following article for treating pigmented gums with pleasing esthetics &acceptable patients satisfaction
  4 19,524 1,324
Comparison of mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine for management of open apices
Deenadayalan Elumalai, Bhumika Kapoor, Rajendra Kumar Tewrai, Surendra Kumar Mishra
September-December 2015, 5(3):131-135
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.181379  
Open apices are a constant challenge to an endodontist. This case report describes the management of open apices with periapical radiolucencies in maxillary central incisors. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and biodentine were used to form an apical barrier and further obturation was completed with the same. The rationale of this case report was to observe the effect of MTA and biodentine on periapical healing in the same patient. It was concluded that initial healing was better in the case of biodentine while long-term effect of MTA was better. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY The rationale of endodontic treatment is to prevent and treat apical periodontitis. In this case, root was not completely formed and hence periodontium was not continuous. With root end closure using MTA and Biodentine, biomimetic activity was initiated which further led to healing of periapical radioluceny and bone formation. Proper coronal seal is inevitable to prevent leakage and further success of endodontic treatment. Hence, crown fabrication is important not only for esthetic purposes but for further long term success.
  4 13,816 1,864
INVITED REVIEW
Magnification-enhanced contemporary dentistry: Getting started
Rashmi Hegde, Vivek Hegde
May-August 2016, 6(2):91-100
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.197695  
Contemporary dental practice is undergoing a sea change; wherein the approach is an interdisciplinary one aimed to impart minimally invasive, painless, and atraumatic treatments to patients. To enhance their vision for both clinical and laboratory procedures, an increasing number of practitioners are opting for magnification systems such as loupes and microscopes in their practice. Due to their benefits such as improved visual acuity due to coaxial lighting, unobstructed vision, illumination, smaller instruments, minimal trauma, and ergonomic benefits, microscope-assisted precision dentistry is becoming the order of the day. Many dental schools are also making the use of these systems mandatory in their teaching curriculi. Even though the use of microscope initially started in ophthalmology, it's benefits in endodontic therapy which can best be performed under magnifications up to ×10-20 remains unparalleled. These benefits also extend to all aspects of dentistry including periodontics, restorative, prosthetic dentistry, and implant dentistry. Barring the disadvantages of steep learning curve, cost, and maneuverability of the equipment, magnifications are definitely becoming an important aspect of modern-day dentistry, owing to their numerous other benefits. Clinical Relevance To Interdisciplinary Dentistry Microscope-enhanced dentistry is actually a part of a broader movement of minimally invasive and holistic approach in dentistry, aimed at development of newer techniques, and achieving esthetically superior outcomes , due to improved visual acuity. Magnified vision leads to improvised treatment, thus diagnosis, and management of multiple interdisciplinary problem areas can be achieved with utmost precision by incorporating magnification systems in day to day practice.
  4 10,519 1,366
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing in dentistry – Future is present
Vidya K Shenoy, M Bharath Prabhu
May-August 2015, 5(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.173229  
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have developed at rapid pace since their introduction offering accuracy and more options. The paradigm shift from traditional techniques to CAD/CAM technology has brought about a revolutionary change in the way the restorations are fabricated. Impression techniques, burnout oven, and casting machines have been replaced by model scanning and CAD/CAM milling machines. Keyboards, monitors, and cursors have replaced Bunsen burners, wax, and carving instrument to fabricate crown and bridge prosthesis. CAD/CAM technology offers automated production, patient comfort, esthetically pleasing and strong restorations and cost-effectiveness to laboratories. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY
  • Computer-aided design/computer.aided manufacturing technology is now a viable, predictable, and efficient alternative to traditional methods for fabrication of dental restorations
  • It has innumerable clinical applications including fabrication of indirect restorations, occlusal splints, implant prosthodontics, maxillofacial prosthodontics, and orthodontics.
  4 12,654 923
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of probiotics on oral health: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Rajan Dhawan, Shivani Dhawan
May-August 2013, 3(2):71-78
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126862  
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate commercially available combined probiotic formulation for its effect on plaque, gingivitis, and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in subjects with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 subjects were finally enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Selected subjects were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (control group) with 17 subjects receiving placebo tablets twice daily and Group B (probiotic group) with 19 subjects receiving probiotic tablets twice daily. The study consisted of two 2-week periods: a 2-week intervention period (T1-T2) and a 2-week posttreatment period (T2-T3). Clinical parameters and bacterial counts of salivary Streptococcus. mutans were evaluated at baseline (T1), at the completion (T2) of medication, and 2 weeks after the medication (T3). Results: On comparative evaluation between the two groups, results indicated that Group B (probiotic group) exhibited statistically significant reduction in Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Calculus Index and Streptococcus. mutans level than Group A (control group) over the entire span of the study. Conclusion: Our results indicated that probiotic could be useful in the improvement/maintenance of oral health. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • If left untreated, gingivitis can progress, increasing the risk of tooth loss. Oral administration of probiotics benefits oral health by preventing the growth of harmful microbiota or by modulating mucosal immunity in the oral cavity.
  • In this study, probiotics were given orally for 2 weeks to subjects suffering from gingivitis and results showed improvement in oral health.
  • Bacteriotherapy in the form of probiotics seems to be a natural way to maintain health and protect oral tissues from disease.
  • Efforts have been made in this article to increase the awareness with this aspect of oral disease therapy and encourage the implementation of the concept of "food rather than medicine".
  4 8,574 925
Profilometric study to compare the effectiveness of various finishing and polishing techniques on different restorative glass ionomer cements
Puttur Laxmish Mallya, Shashirashmi Acharya, Vasudev Ballal, Kishore Ginjupalli, M Kundabala, Manuel Thomas
May-August 2013, 3(2):86-90
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126867  
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness of different types of glass ionomer (GI) restorative cements. Materials and Methods: Surface roughness of conventional, resin modified and nano-ionomer cements was evaluated after different polishing regimens. Totally 20 specimens of 12 mm thick and 10 mm diameter were prepared using Teflon mold. Prepared specimens were subjected to polishing (n = 5) by Sof-Lex discs, diamond finishing points and 30-fluted carbide burs. Control specimens did not receive any polishing treatment, but mylar trip was used as matrix. Average surface roughness (Ra) in micrometers was measured using Surtronic 3 + profilometer. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Control specimens (mylar strip) showed least Ra values followed by Sof-Lex disc, carbide finishing burs and diamond finishing points with all types of glass ionomer cements used in the study. Among the GIs tested, Nano-ionomer showed least Ra followed by resin-modified GI and conventional GI. Conclusion: Mylar strip produced the smoothest surface on all the GIs tested. Nano-Ionomer showed the best polish ability with least Ra values. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Glass ionomer cements (GIC) is one of the most commonly used direct restorative material used in non-stress bearing areas especially to restore cervical lesion at tooth gingival interface
  • Polished GIC surface reduces plaque accumulation and thus decreases the incidence of gingival inflammation and thereby prevents periodontal problems
  • Finishing and polishing of the GIC enhances the longevity and color stability of the restoration.
  4 4,563 479
Public knowledge and acceptance of dental implant treatment in Malaysian Population
Shivani Kohli, Shekhar Bhatia, Arvinder Kaur, Tiviya Rathakrishnan
May-August 2014, 4(2):76-80
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.142938  
Aims: Due to the high success rates and predictability of dental implants, their usage in the rehabilitation of partially dentate and edentulous patients is increasing year by years. The aim of the survey was to assess the patient awareness, source of information and acceptance of dental implants as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth among the Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A nationwide survey was conducted among the patients visiting various dental outpatient departments of hospital and private dental clinics using a self-explanatory questionnaire. The questionnaires were prepared in English and Malay language to enable better understanding and completion. Results: Among the 1013 response retrieved, 772 were aware of dental implant treatment. Among the 81% of the respondents who knew dental implants can be used to replace missing teeth, 19.5% opted not to receive dental implant treatment. About 81.8% of the respondents expressed that dental implant treatment was unaffordable. The cost and associated surgery was a major disadvantage and deterrent to this modality. The dentists were the main source of information regarding the dental implant treatment modality, followed by friends and electronic media. Conclusion: The survey concluded that 76.2% of the Malaysian population was aware of dental implant treatment in Malaysia, mainly from dentists. Having dental insurance would most definitely raise the willingness of respondents for receiving dental implant treatment. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • The practice of implant dentistry requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the knowledge, skills and experience of different disciplines of dentistry comprising of prosthodontics, periodontology and oral surgery into a comprehensive treatment plan.
  • Interdisciplinary therapy is the best way to consider all factors for a successful outcome and to avoid complications in implant dentistry.
  4 5,594 593
REVIEW ARTICLES
Biominerals in restorative dentistry
Neeta Shetty, M Kundabala
May-August 2013, 3(2):64-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126858  
Restorative treatment strategies are being developed to repair and replace lost tooth structures and surrounding bone. The teeth under goes a constant cycle of demineralization and remineralization, but this natural remineralization process is inadequate to prevent progression of dental caries. Hence there is a need to supplement the tooth with a biomaterial which is bio inert or bioactive to remineralize, repair or regenerate the tissues of tooth. Calcium hydroxide is considered the gold standard material for repair of dentin, which is presently being replaced by materials with superior properties such as mineral trioxide aggregate. Biomaterials such as calcium phosphate cements are been advocated as bone substitute material because of properties such as biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and moldability. This review deals with the physiochemical properties of some of the biomineral based biomaterials which are currently used for repair, replacement or regeneration of hard tissues of teeth and bone. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Synthetic biomaterials containing biominerals are used in dentistry to repair and regenerate hard tissues of the teeth and bone.
  • Biomaterials containing biominerals are routinely used by specialist from various fields of dentistry such as restorative dentistry, periodontics and oral surgery.
  • Biomineral based biomaterials are used for direct and indirect pulp capping procedures, as an intracanal medicament in root canals, root perforation repair, periapical surgeries, repair of bony defects.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Functionally generated pathways to develop occlusal scheme for removable partial denture
Pravinkumar G Patil, Smita P Nimbalkar-Patil, Rahul S Kulkarni
September-December 2015, 5(3):154-157
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.181380  
The functionally generated pathway (FGP) technique consists of registering the occlusal pathways of the posterior teeth in the functional wax and has been classically described as the "three-dimensional static expression of dynamic tooth movement." This clinical report describes the treatment of a partially edentulous patient, with a cast removable partial denture, in which occlusion was developed using the FGP procedure. The FGP technique utilizes the patient's masticatory system to develop occlusion and has the advantages of being simple, accurate, and reliable. If the FGP technique is properly accomplished, only minor intraoral occlusal adjustments are necessary. This article described a technique of developing the FGP occlusion for a patient with cast partial denture with Kennedy's Class III edentulous mandibular arch. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY The FGP is highly versatile technique of developing the occlusion-pattern in the removable and fixed dental prostheses including implant restorations. It can be employed with equal efficacy in fabrication of relatively simple restorations such as a single crown, or more complex full mouth reconstructions.
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* Source: CrossRef
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