J Interdiscip Dentistry
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2021
Volume 11 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-105

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EDITORIAL  

COVID-19 and its impact on dental health-care professionals p. 55
Mahalaxmi Sekar, Selvanathan M J. Vinola
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_32_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

An In vitro comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of type II glass ionomer cement, type IX glass ionomer cement, and Cention N on primary molars p. 57
Amit Kumar Pathak, K Mallikarjuna
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_3_21  
Introduction: With various restorative materials available and continuous evolution in the field of research for better restorative materials, it is very important to find a material with maximum desirable properties for restoring a primary tooth. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type II (GIC II), GIC IX, and Cention N on primary tooth. Methods: Cylinder of each restorative material, GIC II (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), GIC IX (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and Cention N (Ivoclar, Vivadent), of dimension 6 mm diameter × 12 mm height (according to ISO 7489:1986) was prepared to check for compressive strength, and disk of dimension 6 mm diameter × 4 mm height (according to ISO 4049 and ANSI/ADA 27) was prepared to check for diametral tensile strength. Furthermore, following the ISO guidelines 29022:2013, restorative materials from various groups were mixed and placed on the flat buccal/lingual enamel of deciduous teeth bonded to the dentin surface of the tooth were used to check for shear bond strength. All the mixing of the materials and samples making were performed by a single investigator. Universal Testing Machine was used to carry out the tests. The data obtained were subjected to ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's test. Intergroup comparison was done with Mann–Whitney test. Results: The compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of Cention N (Ivoclar) were significantly higher than GIC II and GIC IX (P = 0.00). Between GIC II and GIC IX, there was statistically significant difference (P = 0.00) in terms of diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength, but no significant difference was seen in terms of compressive strength (P = 0.08). Conclusion: Cention N (Ivoclar) presented with high mechanical strength and can be a good alternative to GIC II and GIC IX for restoration of deciduous teeth.
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Evaluation of the sealing ability of antibacterial sealing gel versus chlorhexidine varnish at the implant-abutment interface: An in vitro study p. 62
Soja Raju, K Harshakumar, R Ravichandran, Vivek V Nair, Kavitha Janardanan, Litty Francis
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_20_21  
Background: Lack of complete wall-to-wall adaptation between implant and abutment of two-piece implants results in microgap at the implant-abutment interface (IAI). Leakage of bacteria and the endotoxins produced by them at the IAI play a major role in inflammatory reactions of surrounding soft tissues, which in turn lead to crestal bone loss. Objectives: The objective of the study is to compare the sealing ability of antibacterial sealing gel and chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish at the IAI by assessing the growth of Escherichia coli on agar plates. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 implants and abutments were selected for the study and divided into three groups. Sealing agents were applied at the IAI of implant groups and a control group without any sealing agent. Abutments were connected to the implants, and bacteria were inoculated. Bacterial percolation was evaluated by culturing the specimen from the internal aspect of implants on agar plates after incubation. Efficacy was evaluated by counting the colonies (colony-forming units) on the agar plates. The results were analyzed by using Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance followed by pairwise comparison using Dunn-Bonferroni test. Results: Mean of colony-forming units for control was calculated to be 178.38 cfu, for antibacterial sealing gel was 4.75 cfu, and for CHX varnish was 18.63 cfu. In the present study, least value of colony-forming units of bacteria was exhibited by IAIs sealed with antibacterial sealing gel, and the maximum value was given by the control group with no sealing agent at IAI. Conclusion: Application of CHX varnish and antibacterial sealing gel can reduce the bacterial leakage through IAI, whereas complete seal was not attained with either of the materials.
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Comparative evaluation of tissue dissolving capacity of sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid and in combination: An In vitro study p. 68
Prashanth Ponnusamy, Bikash Jyoti Borthakur, S Ganesan, B Swathika
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_74_20  
Background: The capacity of an irrigant to dissolve pulp tissue is of paramount importance as it can clean areas of the root canal that are inaccessible to instrumentation. Aim: To evaluate the tissue dissolving capacity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PAA) in combination. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were split longitudinally and grooved to mimic lateral canals. Pulp retrieved from freshly extracted impacted third molars were placed in grooves and repositioned in a putty index. All samples were irrigated with four different irrigants. 3% NaOCl; 1% PAA; 3% NaOCl and 1% PAA and Normal saline. Samples were irrigated for 5, 10 and 15 min weighed before and after each cycle with precision balance. Statistical analysis with ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni was performed. Results: All groups showed tissue dissolution, except Group IV (Negative control). Complete dissolution did not occur in any sample. Group III showed statistically significant difference at 10 min. Conclusion: Results suggested that NaOCl and PAA in combination have better tissue dissolving capacity than used individually.
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Comparative assessment of role of intracanal medicaments in pain reduction during endodontic treatment: In vivo: Visual analog scale study p. 73
Sadashiv G Daokar, Aishwarya Rajesh Mantri, Kalpana S Patil, Kapil D Wahane, Suraj V Rathi, Shivangi Shashikant Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_83_20  
Background: The presence of microorganisms as a result of failure to properly disinfect the canal is the most common cause of pain. Thus, the main focus of endodontic therapy is on maximum elimination of these bacteria. Intracanal medicaments have been advocated as inter appointment dressings to eliminate the remaining bacteria after root canal preparation and reduce periapical inflammation of tissues. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide, triple antibiotic paste and corticosteroid antibiotic paste as an intracanal medicament in pain reduction. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with a chief complaint of pain and planned for root canal treatment were randomly selected and were further divided into four groups. Group I (n-30) - control group, Group II (n-30) - receiving calcium hydroxide, Group III (n-30) - receiving triple antibiotic paste and Group IV (n-30) - receiving corticosteroid- antibiotic paste (Ledermix) as an intracanal medicament. Pain was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS). The scores were recorded preoperatively, at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. The result was tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: At baseline, the mean score pain for all four groups were in the same range. There was no statistically significant difference between the preoperative mean pain score values. Group IV showed the highest pain reduction followed by Group III, Group II and Group I respectively. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, painful single rooted teeth that had been dressed with Ledermix paste showed higher pain reduction than the other three groups.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of an ectopically erupted permanent mandibular first molar: A review and case report p. 78
Saima Sultan, Chaitra Ravishankar Telgi, Seema Chaudhary, Naveen Manuja, Ashish Amit Sinha
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_8_18  
Ectopic eruption is the disturbance in the eruptive path of a tooth in an abnormal position. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a brief review regarding the prevalence, etiology, classification, and management of ectopically erupting mandibular molar. This manuscript further presents a case report for uprighting the mesially drifted permanent mandibular first molar due to premature loss of primary second molar using Halterman appliance to allow the eruption of permanent second premolar.
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Rehabilitation of oncological nasal defect with effective maxillofacial prosthesis material p. 84
Ahila Singaravel Chidambaranathan, C Thulasingam
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_29_20  
Acquired maxillofacial defects usually result from surgical removal of tumors, infectious diseases, or traumatic injuries and affect the function, esthetics, and psychology of the patient. These extraoral defects can be effectively rehabilitated through surgical reconstruction and/or prosthetic rehabilitation to bring back a near-normal life. This clinical report describes a nasal defect due to squamous cell carcinoma which was successfully managed with an effective prosthesis, and for which, the retention was obtained mechanically using spectacles which is not only cost-effective but also easy to fabricate.
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Old is gold - Modified dentures doing wonders p. 88
Mukti Goel, Ankur Kansal
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_37_20  
Esthetics has become an integral part of prosthesis. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a completely or partially edentulous patient no longer confines to only replacement of missing teeth but has expanded to the enhancement of esthetics by various treatment modalities. Dentist needs to be updated with the various treatment options for providing proper functioning with pleasing esthetics. This article aims to provide with an easily constructed, inexpensive, and practical removable prosthesis to optimize the esthetic and functional outcomes in the special situations, while permitting cleansability of the prosthesis and supporting tissues.
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Peripheral ossifying fibroma p. 93
Sangeeetha Subramaniam, Sakthi Vino Bala, Prakash Ponnudurai Samuel Gnana, Dhayanand John Victor, Devapriya Appukuttan
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_40_20  
There are many reports showing localized gingival overgrowth which is most commonly reactive rather than neoplastic. The reactive type of lesion includes pyogenic granuloma, irritation fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF). Among those, POF is a rare reactive gingival type of lesion. Eversole and Rovin in 1972 first described the POF. The main etiology may be due to trauma, local factors such as plaque and calculus, impingement by dental appliance or restorations. This case report shows a clinical presentation of a 40-year-old male reported with the gingival over growth in the lower front teeth region. The patient was provisionally diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma. Management of the lesion included nonsurgical therapy followed by excisional biopsy. Histologic sections were made and confirmed as POF. The patient was followed up to 6 months with no other complication.
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Silicone finger prosthesis with customized ring wire loop substructure as a retentive aid p. 97
Senbagavalli Sagadevan, R Ravichandran, K Harsha Kumar, Smitha Rajeev
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_48_20  
Finger prosthesis is an artificial replacement of missing fingers. Defects of fingers or hands due to congenital reasons or trauma may affect the individual physically, emotionally, and psychologically. Major problem that we can anticipate during prosthetic replacement of missing or lost fingers is retention. The anatomy of the residual stump of the defect is the most important factor that will determine the mode of retention. Retention of the prosthesis can be enhanced by the numerous methods. This case report describes a cost-effective and simple approach of rehabilitation of a partially amputated finger using a custom-made ring-wire loop substructure which helped to enhance the fit and retention of the prosthesis along with fulfilling the functional demands of the patient.
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Nonsurgical periodontal management of Papillon–Lefevre syndrome p. 101
CN Guruprasad, TR Shankareswari, Maria Thomas Jeethu, Suman Basavarajappa
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_67_20  
Papillon–Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in Cathepsin C. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratosis and premature loss of both primary and permanent dentition. Patients are often edentulous at an early age. Other symptoms include increased susceptibility to infections. Various etiologic factors such as genetic mutations, immunologic alterations, and bacteria have been implicated. We present a case report of 12-year-old female who reported to the dental clinic with a history of pain and swollen gums. Family history revealed consanguinity. On clinical examination, there was palmoplantar keratosis and examination of the oral cavity showed generalized periodontal pockets, tooth mobility, and periodontal abscess. Radiographic examination revealed generalized horizontal bone loss. Lateral cephalogram revealed retarded somatic development. A diagnosis of PLS was arrived based on history, clinical and radiological findings. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment along with the treatment of skin lesions was performed. A combined and intensive mechanical and antimicrobial treatment with supportive periodontal treatment in PLS patients may halt the periodontal disease progression. The dentists should be aware of the same because an early diagnosis of the syndrome can help to preserve the teeth by the timely institution of treatment, using a multidisciplinary approach.
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