J Interdiscip Dentistry
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INVITED REVIEW
Single tooth implants: Pretreatment considerations and pretreatment evaluation
Vidya Kamalaksh Shenoy
September-December 2012, 2(3):149-157
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113239  
Today, implants are considered as a first treatment option to replace missing teeth due to the considerable advantages over the other available options. The ultimate goal of implant treatment is to restore natural esthetics, function, long term health, and patient comfort. Hence, case selection and treatment planning are very crucial to achieve longevity and predictability of the restoration. This article presents a step-by-step protocol for gathering and analyzing the various factors at the pretreatment evaluation stage to set the groundwork for a dentist to consider implant as a restorative option. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • To help the restorative dentist to identify the ideal implant receptor site.
  • Sound periodontal and restorative status is prerequisite to consider implant treatment as an option.
  • Restorative driven implant placement is paramount for overall integrity of the dentition.
  53,485 5,333 2
CASE REPORTS
Multiple acute periodontal abscesses due to clenching
Krithiga Gurumoorthy, Babitha Ajjappa, Shobha Prakash
January-June 2011, 1(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77203  
This case report presents clenching as one of the etiological factors in the causation of multiple acute periodontal abscesses. Acute inflammatory periodontal diseases often present diagnostic problems for the clinician. These are not numerous, but cannot be glossed over. Acute periodontal abscess is one such condition which requires timely intervention and management. The development of the acute exacerbation occurs from an alteration in the tissues immediately adjacent to the affected teeth. Occlusion of the orifice of the periodontal pocket, diabetes, and clenching or bruxism are factors that can cause such an alteration. Here, we report a rare case of multiple acute periodontal abscesses due to clenching in an adult male. A 19-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, with pain and swelling of left cheek and left lower back teeth region of 2 days duration associated with difficulty in mouth opening. Detailed history revealed forceful clenching of teeth during his sleep. He appeared toxic and febrile. There was a diffuse, tender extraoral swelling in the left cheek. The patient had trismus and intraoral examination revealed multiple periodontal abscesses from 34 to 37. The drainage of the abscesses was obtained through the pocket orifice. The root surface was thoroughly planed to remove the deposits and to enhance further drainage. Subgingival irrigation with 0.1% povidone iodine was done and systemic antibiotics were prescribed. The patient was explained regarding the cause of the disease and motivated to stop clenching again. Subgingival irrigation with povidone iodine was continued for the next 3 days and the area curetted after 1 week to prevent recurrence. The healing was uneventful. Clenching of teeth can be one of the etiological factors for the causation of multiple acute periodontal abscesses which can be managed with proper and timely intervention of periodontal therapy.
  32,858 715 -
INVITED REVIEW
Periodontal considerations determining the design and location of margins in restorative dentistry
Arvind Shenoy, Nina Shenoy, Roopa Babannavar
January-April 2012, 2(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94184  
The first and most basic objective of restorative dentistry is preservation of the tooth structure. However, for the long-term survival of restoration the periodontium must also remain healthy or vice versa. The connective tissue of the attachment apparatus consists of three-dimensionally oriented fibers connecting firmly the tooth structures to the surrounding gingiva. Both the epithelial as well as connective tissue attachment contribute to a 'protection mechanism' in a most challenging area where the natural tooth penetrates the ectodermal integrity of the body. The attainment of this objective would be far less complex if it could be considered independent of restoration of function, comfort and esthetics, but such is not the case. The latter objectives usually require sophisticated restorative dentistry as often such esthetic restorations require placement of intra-crevicular margins without compromising on the periodontal health.
  29,719 3,588 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Gingival displacement in prosthodontics: A critical review of existing methods
Krishna D Prasad, Chethan Hegde, Gaurav Agrawal, Manoj Shetty
July-December 2011, 1(2):80-86
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85023  
Tremendous progress has been made in procedures for making fixed prosthodontic impressions over the past few decades. A common objective for impressions and interim crowns or fixed dental prostheses is to register the prepared abutments and finish lines accurately. For all impression procedures, the gingival tissue must be displaced to allow the subgingival finish lines to be registered. Retraction is the temporary displacement of the gingival tissue away from the prepared teeth. This article discusses the current methods that are applied for displacement of gingival tissues so that adequate amount of unprepared tooth structure can be recorded with least distortion of impression material as well as minimal damage to attachment apparatus of the tooth. In addition to this, gingival displacement techniques around implants and for computer aided design/computer added manufacturing (CAD/CAM) based restorations have been discussed. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search any studies involving gingival retraction techniques. The keywords used were gingival retraction, gingival displacement, gingival retraction in implants and retraction cord. Gingival retraction holds an indispensable place during soft tissue management before an impression is made. Swift increase in research work in the recent past leaves no option for a clinician, but to be updated and to possess optimum knowledge to rationalize the use of materials and techniques that are employed for gingival displacement in proximity to both teeth as well as implants.
  27,015 4,635 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Questionable abutments: General considerations, changing trends in treatment planning and available options
D Krishna Prasad, Chethan Hegde, Anshul Bardia, D Anupama Prasad
January-April 2013, 3(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.120516  
Abutment teeth are called upon to withstand the forces normally directed to the missing teeth, in addition to those usually applied to the abutments. Whenever possible, an abutment should be a vital tooth. Normally, teeth with active periodontal problem should not be used as abutment teeth. The use of multiple splinted abutment teeth, non-rigid connectors or intermediate abutments makes the procedure much more difficult and often the result compromises the long-term prognosis. In cases where tooth preparation cannot solve the problem, the use of various attachments and a telescopic retainer must be considered. Understanding the basic concepts of how to retain various restorative components and how to protect the remaining tooth structure, will enable us to answer the numerous questionable situations that arise during the restorative process will be facilitated. Thus, this will result in final restorations that are based on sound design principles. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Fixed prosthetic treatments are always dependent upon the support they receive from abutment teeth. Abutment teeth should have sufficient coronal structure to provide retention to the prosthesis. It might sometimes be necessary to expose or increase the clinical crown by periodontal surgery for support and esthetics. It is also seen that many a times the teeth are supra erupted as a result of absence of opposing dentition which calls for the need of intentional endodontic treatment. By a combination of treatments with interdisciplinary dentistry, we will succeed in providing a functional prosthesis which fulfils esthetic and restorative needs.
  27,285 3,103 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pulse oximetry and laser doppler flowmetry for diagnosis of pulpal vitality
Dakshita Joy Vaghela, Ashish Amit Sinha
January-June 2011, 1(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77191  
The usual pulpal diagnostic instruments have been shown to be unreliable in diagnosing the pulpal status of the teeth following a traumatic injury, especially for teeth with immature root formation and open apex. Compounding the problem with these testing methods is that they all are very subjective, dependant on cooperation and understanding of the situation by the patient, which can lead to a further difficulty in cases involving young children. It is important to note that the usual pulp vitality tests provide information only about the presence or absence of nerve receptors in the pulp and not about the pulpal blood supply. Recent efforts for assessing pulpal circulation have involved the use of laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry. Though both methods are in their infancy and are not yet ready for general clinical applications, but hopefully before long, these technologies will become part of dentists' diagnostic armamentaria. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for Pulse Oximetry featured 2196 articles; in dentistry-121 articles and for Laser Doppler Flowmetry-932 articles and in dentistry-18 articles. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles, author names, and contemporary endodontic texts. A review is presented on the key developments in the arena of these pulp-tests to familiarize the modern dentists with the new advances in endodontic diagnosis.
  22,649 2,464 2
INVITED REVIEW
Endo-perio lesion: A dilemma from 19 th until 21 st century
Abhishek Parolia, Toh Choo Gait, Isabel C. C.M. Porto, Kundabala Mala
January-April 2013, 3(1):2-11
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.120514  
The interrelationship between endodontic and periodontal diseases has been a subject of speculation, confusion and controversy for many years. Pulpal and periodontal problems are responsible for more than 50% of tooth mortality today. An endo-perio lesion can have a varied pathogenesis which ranges from quite simple to relatively complex one. These lesions often present challenges to the clinician as far as diagnosis and prognosis of the involved teeth are concerned. It is very essential to make a correct diagnosis so that the appropriate treatment can be provided. To make a correct diagnosis the clinician should have a thorough understanding and scientific knowledge of these lesions and may need to perform restorative, endoontic or periodontal therapy, either singly or in combination to treat them. Therefore, this presentation will highlight the diagnostic, clinical guidelines and decision-making in the treatment of these lesions from an Endodontist's point of view to achieve the best outcome. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Perio-endo lesions are very complex in nature and can have a varied pathogenesis.
  • Treatment decision-making and prognosis depend primarily on the diagnosis of the specific endodontic and/or periodontal diseases.
  • To have the best prognosis, clinician should refer the case to various areas of specialization, to perform restorative, endodontic or periodontal therapy, either singly or in combination. Therefore, to achieve the best outcome for these lesions, a multi-disciplinary approach should be involved.
  17,785 3,138 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Significance and clinical relevance of biologic width to implant dentistry
Sangeeta Dhir
May-August 2012, 2(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.100599  
The concept of biologic width forms the basis for a successful peri-implant soft tissue integration around titanium implants. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the present knowledge about this important zone that forms the basis for a successful implant. Methodology: Electronic search of the Medline/PubMed was done using the search words and MeSH Headings including, biologic width, peri-implant soft tissue, crestal bone loss, platform switch, biologic width and dental implant, implant abutment junction. Hand search of the prosthetic,implantology, and the periodontology journals was also undertaken for the collection of the data. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. Implant dentistry involves an interdisciplinary treatment approach of prosthodontics, periodontics, and surgical aspects.
  2. A profound knowledge of the biologic response and the underlying anatomical/histologic aspects of the bone and the overlying soft tissues is critical for the success of the implant.
  3. Biologic width is a healthy self-limiting zone around implant. It acts as a mirror for the underlying health of the supporting tissues.
  4. Violation of the biologic width generates a revoking response from the tissues, which then tries to accommodate at the stake of the crestal bone.
  5. This review article tries to demystify the conveniently overlooked biologic zone and the affecting factors/variables responsible for the viability of this zone.
  17,149 2,147 1
CASE REPORTS
Necrosis of alveolar bone secondary to endodontic treatment and its management
Amitabh Srivastava, Krishna Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Tandon, Jaisika Rajpal
January-June 2011, 1(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77205  
The misuse of various chemicals in dentistry may cause damage to gingiva and alveolar bone. In this case report, we describe necrosis of the gingiva and alveolar bone caused by pulp devitalizer. A paraformaldehyde preparation was applied to an inflamed and symptomatic pulp of the maxillary left first molar (tooth #26), in a 20-year-old male. Spillage of the product was responsible for marked necrosis of the gingiva and the alveolar cortical bone, which resulted in great loss of the supporting bone. Surgical intervention was required wherein the necrosed bone was removed and the bone defect was filled with bone graft. The flap was coronally repositioned and sutured securely. After the treatment, the patient's complaints had resolved. Extreme care must be exercised while delivering of such products during treatment.
  15,559 797 -
Surgical esthetic correction for gingival pigmentation: Case series
Shilpi S Shah
September-December 2012, 2(3):195-200
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113259  
Gingival pigmentation is a major concern for a large number of patients visiting the dentist. The patients with excessive gingival display and pigmentation are more concerned esthetically. Most pigmentation is caused by five primary pigments out of which melanin shows the maximum incidence rate. Melanin hyper pigmentation usually does not present as a medical problem, but patients may complain about their unesthetic black gums. The gingiva is the most frequently pigmented intraoral tissue, with the highest rate observed in the area of the incisors Esthetic periodontal plastic surgery is a boon in patients having "dark gums" and "gummy smile." This article offers a retrospective case series of gingival depigmentation by epithelial excision using scalpel. Out of the several techniques employed for depigmentation, the surgical technique using scalpel is still the first and most popular technique. Experience of 4 years is put forward with critical analysis of the surgical technique including the various advantages and disadvantages. This is a case report representing a simple surgical technique of de-epithelization which has been successfully used to treat gingival hyperpigmentation caused by excessive melanin deposition and highlights the relevance of an esthetically pleasing smile especially in smile conscious individuals. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Gingival hyper pigmentation is a very common esthetic complaint reported by patients in various fields of dentistry. Through this case series the dentists can ascertain the various types of techniques mentioned in the following article for treating pigmented gums with pleasing esthetics &acceptable patients satisfaction
  13,610 1,037 1
Combined endodontic - Periodontal lesion: A clinical dilemma
Pushpendra Kumar Verma, Ruchi Srivastava, KK Gupta, Amitabh Srivastava
July-December 2011, 1(2):119-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85034  
Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. Lesions of the periodontal ligament and adjacent alveolar bone may originate from infections of the periodontium or tissues of the dental pulp. Periradicular bone loss secondary to endodontic pathosis is typically seen in teeth with necrotic pulps. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is not only to maintain the natural dentition, but also to restore lost periodontium. Combined periodontal and endodontic diseases involve the periodontal attachment apparatus. The treatment of endodontic-periodontal combined lesions requires both endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative procedures. With advancements in new techniques and materials different treatment choices are available, providing a superior prognosis. This article includes case reports of combined endo-perio lesions which were first treated with conventional endodontic therapy and then followed by periodontal surgery. This combined treatment resulted in a radiographical evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function to the teeth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion.
  12,126 1,616 2
INVITED REVIEW
Occlusion: The gateway to success
Bhuvaneswaran Mohan, Dhanasekaran Sihivahanan
May-August 2012, 2(2):68-77
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.100597  
Success of our clinical procedures is not a single-day entity, but instead survival on a long-term basis. The clinical longevity of our work is dependent on so many factors and when we have a closer look, all these ultimately depend on the occlusal stability. The word occlusion itself creates aversion for almost all and very conviently we try to avoid the occlusal principles thinking that we have to bother about the principles only for tempeoro-mandibular joint disorder patients. In an irony, it is true that the principles of occlusion have to be applied in our day-to-day practice to be successful. This article aims to simplify the principles of occlusion so that the readers develop interest in this most rewarding subject. Also, the clinical implication of the occlusal concepts and the treatment modalities are explained to give the readers an insight into how important this subject is for our day-to-day practice. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. Important to understand the principles of occlusal harmony, to have a better approach to clinical examination, treatment panning. And problem solving for any restorative cases.
  2. The failure to embrace sound occlusal principles leads to a plethora of fringe-type treatment modalities and unnecessary overtreatment.
  3. If the signs of occlusal disease can be easily observed at the earliest stages, the progression of the damage can be intercepted.
  4. Not respecting the dento-facial system may result in restoration, prosthesis, or periodontal treatment failures, along with relapse of orthodontic and orthognathic surgeries.
  11,556 1,954 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tooth implant supported Prosthesis: A Literature review
Vidya Kamalaksh Shenoy, Shobha J Rodrigue, E Prashanti, Sharon J. R. Saldanha
September-December 2013, 3(3):143-150
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.131198  
Background: Implants are connected to the natural teeth in the management of partially edentulous patients. The use of this concept has been a subject of discussion as some authors have recommended it while others stress on the potential complications associated with splinting implants to natural teeth. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature regarding the rationale, difference in the biomechanical behavior of the implant and the natural teeth, nature of connection, potential complications associated with splinting of implants and teeth, and guidelines to be followed. Materials and Methods: Various databases like PubMed, Ebscohost, Science Direct were searched between 1980 to December 2011 to retrieve articles regarding the implant natural teeth connection. A manual search for the references from the retrieved articles was also completed. The articles published only in English, randomized clinical trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, laboratory and computer generated research were included. Abstracts, opinion articles, technique articles and questionnaire based studies were excluded. Results: The biomechanical impact of mismatch in the mobility pattern of natural teeth and implants has been controversial. Various complications associated with tooth implant supported prosthesis has been reported with intrusion and implant overloading being the cause of concern. Marginal bone loss associated with overload around the implant has been reported and found to be within acceptable levels. The reports also suggested no significant differences between various types of connections utilized and to use the non rigid connections with caution. Conclusion: Whenever possible implant supported prostheses should be the treatment of choice. However, certain clinical situations demand connecting teeth to implants. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • The difference in the biomechanical behaviour between osseointegrated implants and teeth and the efficacy of the different modes of connection that have been employed are explored.
  • Evidence based decisions could be made concerning utility of connecting teeth to implants
  11,745 1,740 -
Ozone therapy in dentistry: A literature review
Bikash Pattanaik, Dinesh Jetwa, Seema Pattanaik, Sachin Manglekar, Dinesh N Naitam, Anurag Dani
July-December 2011, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85024  
This review of literature is an attempt to summarize different modalities of ozone application in dentistry. Ozone gas has a high oxidation potential and is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. It also has the capacity to stimulate blood circulation, platelets, and immune response. Ozone is used in dentistry in gaseous, ozonated water and as ozonated oils. Ozone was shown to be biocompatible and is used in all aspects of dentistry. It has been shown to stimulate remineralization of recent caries-affected teeth and is used as a preventive therapy in caries, root caries, and intracanal irrigants in endodontic treatment. It has been used in treatment of alveolitis, avascular osteonecrosis of the jaw, and herpes virus infection. It also inhibits plaque formation and can be used as an adjuvant in periodontal surgical and maintenance phase. Ozone has also been used in dental unit water line to disinfect water. Advantage of ozone therapy is it is an atraumatic, biologically based treatment. While laboratory studies suggest a promising potential of ozone in dentistry, less number of clinical studies were documented. More number of randomized, controlled trials need to be conducted to determine the precise indications and guidelines to treat various dental pathologies with this promising medical agent.
  11,052 2,177 2
CASE REPORTS
Light weight maxillary complete denture: A case report using a simplified technique with thermocol
Vibha Shetty, Sivaranjani Gali, Smitha Ravindran
January-June 2011, 1(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77208  
The success of a complete denture relies on the principles of retention, stability and support. The prosthodontist's skill lies in applying these principles efficiently in critical situations. Severely resorbed maxillary edentulous ridges that are narrow and constricted with increased inter ridge space provide decreased support, retention and stability. The consequent weight of the processed denture only compromises them further. This article describes a case report of an edentulous patient with resorbed ridges where a simplified technique of fabricating a light weight maxillary complete denture was used for preservation of denture bearing areas.
  11,730 1,269 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
An update on remineralizing agents
Shashi Prabha Tyagi, Paridhi Garg, Dakshita Joy Sinha, Udai Pratap Singh
September-December 2013, 3(3):151-158
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.131200  
Modern dentistry aims to manage non-cavitated carious lesions non-invasively through remineralization in an attempt to prevent disease progression, and to improve form, function, strength and esthetics of teeth. The emphasis currently is being laid upon new technologies for enamel remineralization. Further studies are required on biomimetic molecules involved in calcium fluoride phosphate stabilization and nucleation that may provide further improvements in the development of novel remineralization treatments. The aim of this paper is to review the contemporary remineralizing systems available for remineralization therapy and their implementation into clinical practice. A search of articles from "Pubmed" and "Medline" with the keywords Remineralization- demineralization, Casein derivatives, fluoridated remineralizing agents and non-fluoridated remineralizing agents was conducted. A total of 810 abstracts were collected, of which 351 articles that discussed the current technologies of remineralizing agents were read and 71 most relevant articles were included in this paper. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • All work in the health field is aimed at conservation of the human body and its function; similarly, dentistry's goal should be to preserve healthy, natural tooth structure. Modern dentistry aims to manage non-cavitated carious lesions non-invasively through remineralization. Remineralizing agents can also find its application in other fields of dentistry like pedodontics, periodontics and orthodontics. It can help in mineralization and management of hypocalcified lesions. It can be used for desensitization of exposed dentine affected by dental erosion. It can be used after debonding of brackets in lieu of completion of orthodontic treatment.
  10,524 2,425 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of Ledermix as a root canal medicament in symptomatic teeth: A clinical study
M Kundabala, S Jagadish, S Ramya
May-August 2014, 4(2):85-88
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.142944  
Intracanal medication is adjunct to cleaning and shaping in reducing postoperative pain and tenderness in symptomatic teeth. The present clinical study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Ledermix paste as intracanal medicament in symptomatic teeth using the eugenol as control. Access cavity was prepared for 30 symptomatic teeth,Intracanal medicament was placed. Incidence of post access pain and tenderness were evaluated. Ledermix showed faster action than eugenol in reducing symptoms i.e.within 72 hrs. Clinical Relevance To Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. Intracanal medicament is very important to control the infection and symptoms even after the root canal therapy for better prognosis
  2. With good longacting intracanal medication ,prognosis of post-endo restoration will be better and it helps in clinical success of the cases.
  11,376 759 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Principles of screw - retained and cement - retained fixed implant prosthesis: A critical review
Sanath Shetty, Aditi Garg, K Kamalakanth Shenoy
September-December 2014, 4(3):123-129
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.147329  
Dental implants in the past were mainly restricted to completely edentulous patients and to a certain extent in the distal extension situations. In the present scenario with a dramatic increase in the survival rates of the dental implants and their widespread acceptance by the patients, they are often being used in partially edentulous conditions and as well as single tooth replacements. However, longevity of the restoration, both functionally as well as esthetically depends on various factors prevailing in the clinical situation. One such factor of immense importance is the selection of connection between the implant abutment and the final prosthesis. This connection can be screw-retained or cement-retained depending on the clinical situation of the particular case. Although, screw-retained restorations have been successfully used since many years, there has been a shift in paradigm toward cement-retained restorations. This article reviews the various complications associated with screw-retained restorations and subsequently analyzes the various factors associated with the selection of the attachment mechanism in implant dentistry. Clinical Relevance To Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • The article involves various disciplines of dentistry, particularly Prosthodontics, Periodontics, Oral Surgery and Dental Materials. As specified, in this literature, selection of connection system between implant and the prosthesis plays a significant role in reducing the prevalence of various periodontal (Peri-implantitis, bone loss), prosthetic (screw loosening or fractured prosthesis) and surgical complications associated with implant supported prosthesis. Thus, a thorough knowledge of this aspect, significantly increases the success rate of implant supported prosthesis in partially and completely edentulous patients.
  10,263 1,664 -
Nanotechnology: The future
T.S.V Satyanarayana, Rathika Rai
July-December 2011, 1(2):93-100
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85026  
The challenge to our profession today is to improve the quality of oral health while overcoming both extrinsic and intrinsic factors which may adversely affect our progress toward achieving this goal. Nanotechnology which is fast developing, its name reverberating in almost every field, is also making and is set to transform dentistry in a huge way. This article tries to give an insight of the application of nanotechnology in dentistry using both top down and bottom up approach, recent development of nano products with superior quality, helical rosette nanotubes as a bone substitute, surface treatment of implant, dentifrobot, improved diagnostic instruments, (biomarkers, stem cell imaging in MRI) precise drug delivery system, controlled radiation therapy and bio nano sensors for cancer treatment, the near to achieve future ground breaking realities of development of bionic mandible, nanorobots, respirocytes, microbiovore, cytorobots, karyorobots, their effect on dentistry and medicine, and the possible risk factors and the ethical concerns to be looked into for application of nanotechnology in dentistry.
  10,116 1,772 2
Acetal resin as an esthetic clasp material
K Lekha, NP Savitha, Meshramkar Roseline, Ramesh K Nadiger
January-April 2012, 2(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94185  
Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are an effective and affordable treatment option for partial edentulism. Restoration of esthetics is an important function of RPD and it determines the success of the treatment. The goal of achieving optimal esthetics - while maintaining retentive integrity, stability, and protecting the health of the tooth - is the most difficult task. The traditional use of the metal clasp like cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), gold, stainless steel, and titanium hampers esthetics, since its obvious display conflicts with patient's prosthetic confidentiality. Acetal resin (polyoxymethylene or POM), a thermoplastic resin, may be used as an alternative denture clasp material. This material was promoted primarily on the basis of superior esthetics, which allowed the clasps to better match the color of abutment tooth. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search original research articles, case reports, and other reviews about acetal resin. The keywords used were acetal resin, esthetic, clasp, removable partial denture, thermoplastic, metal free framework. This article is the result of a literature study on acetal resin clasp material for conventional RPD.
  9,144 1,438 1
CASE REPORTS
Management of subgingivally fractured teeth: A multidisciplinary approach
Raghu Devanna, Vani Hegde, Vutkoor Kavitha
January-June 2011, 1(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77209  
The interdisciplinary treatment is becoming an ever-increasing part of modern-day orthodontic practice. Subgingivally fractured incisors pose a true therapeutic dilemma to the dental team. Attempts to expose the fracture line by alveolar re-contouring and periodontal procedures may compromise the functional root length and esthetics. Placing the margin of the restoration in the biologic width frequently leads to chronic gingivitis, the loss of clinical attachment, pockets and gingival recessions. Controlled orthodontic extrusion is considered as the easiest orthodontic tooth movement to expose the fracture line, which can produce excellent results with a good prognosis and a low risk of relapse. This case report describes in detail the chosen treatment for subgingivally fractured permanent incisors and is followed by a discussion of the considerations involved in the choice of treatment.
  9,263 1,002 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Metal-free restorations: Clinical considerations
Chethan Hegde, Anita Nitin, S Vijai, SR Anil, D Ramya
January-June 2011, 1(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77189  
Porcelain is known to be the most aesthetic material for dental restorations. Dental porcelains have had to be reinforced with metal substructures in the past due to their unpredictable strength. However, clinicians have often faced an aesthetic challenge when restoring anterior teeth with porcelain-fused to metal restorations. A demand for a more aesthetic alternative has led to the evolution of metal-free restorations. This article discusses the various metal-free ceramic systems available, their applications, including their margin configurations and cementation protocols and specific indications and advantages of each system. Clinical evidence and experimental studies have been reviewed to provide an evidence-based application of these materials in different situations.
  7,850 1,333 1
CASE REPORTS
Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics: Review on a surgical technique and a case report
Sharath Karanth, Amitha Ramesh, Biju Thomas, Anju Mary John
September-December 2012, 2(3):179-184
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113250  
Modifying the balance between resorption and apposition through selectively injuring the cortical plate of the alveolus has been an approach to accelerate tooth movement and is referred to as periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. It has gradually gained popularity as an adjunct treatment option for adults, as routine orthodontic tooth movement is difficult and time consuming once the mineralization and maturation of the maxilla and mandible are complete. Case selection is a very important step in which both the orthodontist and the periodontist should agree upon the need for corticotomy. The periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontic technique described by Wilcko (2001) involves full thickness flap reflection labially and lingually. Selective alveolar decortications are performed in the form of vertical decortications cuts up to 0.5 mm in depth, interdentally as well as horizontal cuts beyond the apex connecting the vertical decortications cuts. Adequate bio-absorbable grafting material is placed over the decortications site and sutured. Orthodontic tooth movement should start 1 or 2 weeks after the surgery. The present article reviews on contemporary clinical techniques in accelerated osteogenic orthodontics and a case report in which this technique has been implicated. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • The term interdisciplinary dentistry depicts the importance of team work.
  • The combined effort of the specialists of the various branches of dentistry will help to deliver the best treatment to the patient by providing a well functioning dentition in a healthy periodontal environment.
  • The present article highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the purpose of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics, in the treatment of adult orthodontic patients.
  7,719 1,310 -
Management of dehiscence and fenestration alveolar defects around incisors using platelet-rich fibrin: Report of two cases
Vivek Kumar Bains, Rhythm Bains, Swyeta Jain Gupta, Pranab Mishra, Kapil Loomba
May-August 2015, 5(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.173222  
Breach in the continuity of the cortical plate often leads to dehiscence and fenestration alveolar defects. These case reports discuss the regeneration of periodontal tissues in fenestration and dehiscence defects that had developed around traumatized incisors, using a novel, cost effective platelet.rich fibrin clot along with hydroxyapatite bone grafting material. These alveolar defects profoundly affect the prognosis of both periodontal and endodontic treatment outcomes; therefore, they should be carefully diagnosed and managed to increase the long-term prognosis of the tooth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY
  • Since diseases never confined themselves within the purlieu of a department; henceforth with an interdisciplinary approach, careful diagnosis followed by sequential treatment methodology is of paramount importance while management of a disease
  • In the present case reports, fenestration and dehiscence defects were successfully treated with combined endodontic-periodontal approach with no recurrence of periodontal disease at 1-year and 6. months follow-ups, respectively.
  8,175 553 -
Comparison of mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine for management of open apices
Deenadayalan Elumalai, Bhumika Kapoor, Rajendra Kumar Tewrai, Surendra Kumar Mishra
September-December 2015, 5(3):131-135
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.181379  
Open apices are a constant challenge to an endodontist. This case report describes the management of open apices with periapical radiolucencies in maxillary central incisors. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and biodentine were used to form an apical barrier and further obturation was completed with the same. The rationale of this case report was to observe the effect of MTA and biodentine on periapical healing in the same patient. It was concluded that initial healing was better in the case of biodentine while long-term effect of MTA was better. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY The rationale of endodontic treatment is to prevent and treat apical periodontitis. In this case, root was not completely formed and hence periodontium was not continuous. With root end closure using MTA and Biodentine, biomimetic activity was initiated which further led to healing of periapical radioluceny and bone formation. Proper coronal seal is inevitable to prevent leakage and further success of endodontic treatment. Hence, crown fabrication is important not only for esthetic purposes but for further long term success.
  7,431 1,137 -
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