J Interdiscip Dentistry
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CASE REPORTS
Platelet rich fibrin: A promising approach for root coverage
Aravind P Kumar, Bennete Fernandes, C Surya
July-December 2011, 1(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85033  
Platelet rich fibrin is a novel treatment option available for various mucogingival defects with varied outcome. Although it is as its infancy, the best part of platelet-rich fibrin is acquirement of optimal esthetic results with excellent soft tissue contour and texture. This case reports highlights the usage of platelet rich fibrin membrane for the treatment of mucogingival defects such as gingival recession.
  4 4,602 957
Combined endodontic - Periodontal lesion: A clinical dilemma
Pushpendra Kumar Verma, Ruchi Srivastava, KK Gupta, Amitabh Srivastava
July-December 2011, 1(2):119-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85034  
Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. Lesions of the periodontal ligament and adjacent alveolar bone may originate from infections of the periodontium or tissues of the dental pulp. Periradicular bone loss secondary to endodontic pathosis is typically seen in teeth with necrotic pulps. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is not only to maintain the natural dentition, but also to restore lost periodontium. Combined periodontal and endodontic diseases involve the periodontal attachment apparatus. The treatment of endodontic-periodontal combined lesions requires both endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative procedures. With advancements in new techniques and materials different treatment choices are available, providing a superior prognosis. This article includes case reports of combined endo-perio lesions which were first treated with conventional endodontic therapy and then followed by periodontal surgery. This combined treatment resulted in a radiographical evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function to the teeth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion.
  2 11,855 1,591
INVITED REVIEW
Periodontal considerations determining the design and location of margins in restorative dentistry
Arvind Shenoy, Nina Shenoy, Roopa Babannavar
January-April 2012, 2(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94184  
The first and most basic objective of restorative dentistry is preservation of the tooth structure. However, for the long-term survival of restoration the periodontium must also remain healthy or vice versa. The connective tissue of the attachment apparatus consists of three-dimensionally oriented fibers connecting firmly the tooth structures to the surrounding gingiva. Both the epithelial as well as connective tissue attachment contribute to a 'protection mechanism' in a most challenging area where the natural tooth penetrates the ectodermal integrity of the body. The attainment of this objective would be far less complex if it could be considered independent of restoration of function, comfort and esthetics, but such is not the case. The latter objectives usually require sophisticated restorative dentistry as often such esthetic restorations require placement of intra-crevicular margins without compromising on the periodontal health.
  2 27,627 3,371
Single tooth implants: Pretreatment considerations and pretreatment evaluation
Vidya Kamalaksh Shenoy
September-December 2012, 2(3):149-157
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113239  
Today, implants are considered as a first treatment option to replace missing teeth due to the considerable advantages over the other available options. The ultimate goal of implant treatment is to restore natural esthetics, function, long term health, and patient comfort. Hence, case selection and treatment planning are very crucial to achieve longevity and predictability of the restoration. This article presents a step-by-step protocol for gathering and analyzing the various factors at the pretreatment evaluation stage to set the groundwork for a dentist to consider implant as a restorative option. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • To help the restorative dentist to identify the ideal implant receptor site.
  • Sound periodontal and restorative status is prerequisite to consider implant treatment as an option.
  • Restorative driven implant placement is paramount for overall integrity of the dentition.
  2 50,015 4,850
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of bioactive glass and strontium chloride for treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity
Suryaprakash Ananthakrishna, Tumkur Naryanappa Raghu, Sunil Koshy, Naveen Kumar
May-August 2012, 2(2):92-97
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.100600  
Objective: Bioactive glass is a calcium sodium phosphosilicate material (24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na 2 O, 6.0% P 2 O 5 , and 45% SiO 2 ) that was originally developed as an implant material to regenerate bone and recently adapted for use in oral care products (NovaMin® , NovaMin Technology Inc.). NovaMin reacts rapidly with saliva to release sodium, which increases the salivary pH, as well as calcium and phosphate, creating the ideal conditions for tooth remineralization. NovaMin has been shown to occlude dentinal tubules and remineralize dentin; therefore, it could be used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effect of NovaMin and 10% strontium chloride containing dentifrices on dentinal hypersensitivity in a 6-week clinical study. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were evaluated clinically for dentinal hypersensitivity using air blast method (dental air syringe) and cold water method, along with subjective perception of pain (0-10 scale) at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The subjects were then randomly divided into two groups and each group was treated with one of the two test dentifrices. Results: There was a general decrease in dentinal hypersensitivity levels in both the groups over 6 weeks, but there was a statistically greater difference in hypersensitivity at 2, 4, and 6 weeks in the group treated with DenShield (NovaMin containing dentifrice) when compared with the Senolin® (strontium chloride containing dentifrice) group. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. Dentin hypersensitivity is common problem experienced in clinical dental practice.
  2. It can occur due to changes in the crown, which involve removal of enamel as a result of attrition, abrasion, or erosion. Alternative causes of pain include chipped or fractured teeth, cracked cusps, carious lesions, leaky restorations, and developmental grooves.
  3. It can also occur due to exposure of root dentin as seen in gingival recession which is caused by chronic trauma from tooth brushing, acute and chronic inflammatory gingival and periodontal diseases, and acute trauma, as with periodontal surgery.
  4. The problem of dentin hypersensitivity is of concern to the general dental practitioner, the endodontist, and the periodontist, as the treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach very often. Correction could involve desensitizing dentifrices, restoration, crowns, and root coverage.
  2 3,959 672
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ozone therapy in dentistry: A literature review
Bikash Pattanaik, Dinesh Jetwa, Seema Pattanaik, Sachin Manglekar, Dinesh N Naitam, Anurag Dani
July-December 2011, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85024  
This review of literature is an attempt to summarize different modalities of ozone application in dentistry. Ozone gas has a high oxidation potential and is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. It also has the capacity to stimulate blood circulation, platelets, and immune response. Ozone is used in dentistry in gaseous, ozonated water and as ozonated oils. Ozone was shown to be biocompatible and is used in all aspects of dentistry. It has been shown to stimulate remineralization of recent caries-affected teeth and is used as a preventive therapy in caries, root caries, and intracanal irrigants in endodontic treatment. It has been used in treatment of alveolitis, avascular osteonecrosis of the jaw, and herpes virus infection. It also inhibits plaque formation and can be used as an adjuvant in periodontal surgical and maintenance phase. Ozone has also been used in dental unit water line to disinfect water. Advantage of ozone therapy is it is an atraumatic, biologically based treatment. While laboratory studies suggest a promising potential of ozone in dentistry, less number of clinical studies were documented. More number of randomized, controlled trials need to be conducted to determine the precise indications and guidelines to treat various dental pathologies with this promising medical agent.
  2 10,525 1,985
Nanotechnology: The future
T.S.V Satyanarayana, Rathika Rai
July-December 2011, 1(2):93-100
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.85026  
The challenge to our profession today is to improve the quality of oral health while overcoming both extrinsic and intrinsic factors which may adversely affect our progress toward achieving this goal. Nanotechnology which is fast developing, its name reverberating in almost every field, is also making and is set to transform dentistry in a huge way. This article tries to give an insight of the application of nanotechnology in dentistry using both top down and bottom up approach, recent development of nano products with superior quality, helical rosette nanotubes as a bone substitute, surface treatment of implant, dentifrobot, improved diagnostic instruments, (biomarkers, stem cell imaging in MRI) precise drug delivery system, controlled radiation therapy and bio nano sensors for cancer treatment, the near to achieve future ground breaking realities of development of bionic mandible, nanorobots, respirocytes, microbiovore, cytorobots, karyorobots, their effect on dentistry and medicine, and the possible risk factors and the ethical concerns to be looked into for application of nanotechnology in dentistry.
  2 9,917 1,733
Continuing antiplatelet therapy throughout dental procedures: A clinical dilemma
Sheeraz Badal, Syed Ahmed, Rohit Shrikanthan, Afreen Badal
January-April 2012, 2(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.94186  
Antiplatelet therapy is commonly recommended for the prevention of the thromboembolic events, including the myocardial infarction and stroke. It has reduced the mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular diseases remarkably. A considerable number of patients presenting before a dentist give a history of antiplatelet therapy. A clinical dilemma exists whether to discontinue the antiplatelet therapy or to continue during the routine and invasive dental procedures. Continuing antiplatelet therapy during surgery minimizes the risk of thromboembolic complications but theoretically increases the risk of hemorrhage. Discontinuing antiplatelet therapy may expose patients to life-threatening thromboembolic events, while presumably reducing the risk of hemorrhagic complications. Diverse opinions exist regarding the management of such patients. Some advice continuation of the antiplatelet therapy rather than inviting possible thromboembolic event, while others encourages its discontinuation.
  2 5,948 731
Pulse oximetry and laser doppler flowmetry for diagnosis of pulpal vitality
Dakshita Joy Vaghela, Ashish Amit Sinha
January-June 2011, 1(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.77191  
The usual pulpal diagnostic instruments have been shown to be unreliable in diagnosing the pulpal status of the teeth following a traumatic injury, especially for teeth with immature root formation and open apex. Compounding the problem with these testing methods is that they all are very subjective, dependant on cooperation and understanding of the situation by the patient, which can lead to a further difficulty in cases involving young children. It is important to note that the usual pulp vitality tests provide information only about the presence or absence of nerve receptors in the pulp and not about the pulpal blood supply. Recent efforts for assessing pulpal circulation have involved the use of laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry. Though both methods are in their infancy and are not yet ready for general clinical applications, but hopefully before long, these technologies will become part of dentists' diagnostic armamentaria. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for Pulse Oximetry featured 2196 articles; in dentistry-121 articles and for Laser Doppler Flowmetry-932 articles and in dentistry-18 articles. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles, author names, and contemporary endodontic texts. A review is presented on the key developments in the arena of these pulp-tests to familiarize the modern dentists with the new advances in endodontic diagnosis.
  2 22,002 2,398
CASE REPORTS
Surgical esthetic correction for gingival pigmentation: Case series
Shilpi S Shah
September-December 2012, 2(3):195-200
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113259  
Gingival pigmentation is a major concern for a large number of patients visiting the dentist. The patients with excessive gingival display and pigmentation are more concerned esthetically. Most pigmentation is caused by five primary pigments out of which melanin shows the maximum incidence rate. Melanin hyper pigmentation usually does not present as a medical problem, but patients may complain about their unesthetic black gums. The gingiva is the most frequently pigmented intraoral tissue, with the highest rate observed in the area of the incisors Esthetic periodontal plastic surgery is a boon in patients having "dark gums" and "gummy smile." This article offers a retrospective case series of gingival depigmentation by epithelial excision using scalpel. Out of the several techniques employed for depigmentation, the surgical technique using scalpel is still the first and most popular technique. Experience of 4 years is put forward with critical analysis of the surgical technique including the various advantages and disadvantages. This is a case report representing a simple surgical technique of de-epithelization which has been successfully used to treat gingival hyperpigmentation caused by excessive melanin deposition and highlights the relevance of an esthetically pleasing smile especially in smile conscious individuals. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Gingival hyper pigmentation is a very common esthetic complaint reported by patients in various fields of dentistry. Through this case series the dentists can ascertain the various types of techniques mentioned in the following article for treating pigmented gums with pleasing esthetics &acceptable patients satisfaction
  1 13,163 1,004
Magnet retained mandibular overdenture: A multidisciplinary approach
Suma Janya, Priyanka Gubrellay, Anupam Purwar, Shally Khanna
January-April 2013, 3(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.120530  
Magnets have been used widely in the field of dentistry for many years with some success, as they can be manufactured in small dimensions as retentive devices in overdenture technique, maxillofacial prosthesis, and obturators. These magnets are attached with remaining root structure or osseointegrated implants which transfer the occlusal load to the bone through the periodontal ligament of the retained roots, thereby prevent resorption of remaining alveolar bone proper and inter-radicular bone present around the roots. In this article, the use of magnetic assembly in fabrication of mandibular overdenture on retained roots and a conventional maxillary removable partial denture is discussed. Magnetic assembly consists of magnet and coping with a keeper on the remaining tooth structure since magnetic attachments can provide support, stability, and retention. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • The present article demonstrates the rehabilitation of partially edentulous patient with the help of magnetic assembly mandibular overdenture and maxillary conventional removable partial denture. Clinical presentation showed few remaining teeth in relation to the mandibular ridge. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted to retain the remaining teeth in the mandibular arch with the help of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment) followed by prosthetic rehabilitation.
  1 6,939 919
Surgical management of overfilled gutta-percha and root capping with mineral trioxide aggregate in a young patient
AR Vivekananda Pai, Suprabha Baranya Shrikrishna, Nachiket Shah
September-December 2014, 4(3):148-151
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.147336  
Overfilled gutta-percha (GP) can lead to failure of root canal treatment. Management of overfilled GP may require periradicular surgery with root end procedures. However, these procedures have drawbacks, particularly in a young patient. This article describes a case of periradicular cyst due to overfilled GP managed by periradicular surgery. Root capping at the apex was carried out with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) instead of root end procedures. MTA root capping promoted apical build up, sealing and periapical healing. Clinical Relevance To Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. The article describes a technique called "root capping" that can be carried out during periradicular surgery instead of root end procedures in a young patient.
  2. This technique is of clinical importance due to challenges encountered during endodontic treatment in permanent teeth of young patients such as thin dentinal walls.
  3. The need for periradicular surgery in the management of periapical lesions due to overfilled gutta-percha is emphasized.
  1 6,736 470
Deceptive periodontal pocket diagnosed later as odontogenic keratocyst
Jaisika Rajpal, Aakash Arora, Prerna Arora, Ruchika Prasad
May-August 2015, 5(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.173227  
A visual assessment of the periodontal tissues may be misleading. A periodontal pocket is the most important clinical feature of periodontal diseases. However, even the most reliable probing can be misleading at times and only X-rays of the area allow us to assess the exact clinical situation. This paper presents a report wherein the deceptive periodontal pocket later lead to the diagnosis of an odontogenic keratocyst.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO INTERDISCIPLINARY DENTISTRY
This case holds an important relevance to interdisciplinary dentistry as such cases are often reported by dental practitioners wherein, the patients chief complaint is very different from the clinical picture actually observed by the dentist. In this case a mere reporting of periodontal pocket would have led to mistreatment with curettage, whereas the actual treatment needed was enucleation.
  1 825 100
INVITED REVIEW
Patient record and communication in interdisciplinary dentistry
Surbhi Sawhney, Mala Kundabala, Neeta Shetty, Manuel Thomas
May-August 2014, 4(2):62-65
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.142934  
Well-maintained records and good communication are essentials tools in modern dentistry. The right components of a dental record and appropriate communication skills by far provide a step forward in quality dental treatment. This article discusses the importance of both, good records and communication skills, in interdisciplinary dentistry and provides an overview of the components involved. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Clinical relevance to interdisciplinary dentistry- The overall management of a dental patient requires a holistic and interdisciplinary approach, involving areas such as management of records and establishing a chain of communication. The various factors and components that support the same are discussed.
  1 1,501 232
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antimicrobial activity of various irrigants against E. faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study
A Afzal, V Rajesh Gopal, Rajesh Pillai, Asha Sarah Jacob, S U-Nu, S Shan
May-August 2013, 3(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126872  
Aim: This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of irrigants during the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. This in vitro study evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively, the antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and MTAD against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and sectioned below the cement-enamel junction at 15 mm length. E. faecalis ATCC 29212 strain and clinical strains were subcultured from nutrient agar plates in the laboratory. Single colonies of both strains were inoculated from nutrient agar cultures into 100 mL Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) and incubated at 37°C and 150 rpm for 2 h. After 2 h, when the culture entered the logarithmic phase, the prepared teeth specimens were added and incubated at 37° C and 60 rpm for 7 days. Every 48 h, 75 mL of the culture was replaced with fresh TSB. The 80 samples were divided into two sets of 40 each: the first set of 40 specimens for ATCC 29212 and the second set of 40 specimens for clinical isolates. Each set was further subdivided into four groups of 10 teeth according to the selected irrigants. For quantitative assessment, six teeth from each group were used for viable count, and, for qualitative analysis, four teeth from each group sectioned vertically were used for fluorescent microscopy . Results: In the agar disc diffusion method, both Chlorhexidine and MTAD exhibited good antibacterial properties. Distilled water had no antimicrobial property. The colony counts in the clinical isolates and ATCC specimens when used with different irrigants were compared using one-way ANOVA. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite showed the most effective antimicrobial property among the three irrigants against E. faecalis biofilm. Clinical relevance to interdisciplinary dentistry
  • Microorganisms remaining in the root canal space after treatment or recolonizing the filled canal system are the main cause of endodontic failures.
  • Failure in Root canal therapy will lead reinfection which may become a problem which has to be handled with multidisciplinary approach such as endodontic surgery or therapy.
  1 2,638 347
An evaluation of horizontal depth of penetration of various irrigants into the dentinal tubules when used alone and in combination with diode laser: An in vitro study
Rajeshwari , Premanand Kamath, M Kundabala, Shalini Shenoy, Vivek Hegde, Naresh Thukral
September-December 2014, 4(3):130-134
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.147331  
Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the horizontal depth of prenetration of various irrigants into dentinal tubules using sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine and diode laser when used alone and in combination. Materials and Methods: 60 single rooted extracted human teeth were collected. Access cavity was prepared and the canals enlarged to file size 30 of 0.04 taper rotary instrument. After decoronation, vertical grooves extending from coronal to apical thirds were done on proximal surfaces of each tooth roots. Following which EDTA was used to remove the smear laryer from the root canal dentin and a turbid suspension of Enterococcus faecalis was inoculated in the root canals and incubated at 370C for 24 hours. The teeth were divided into 4 groups of 15 teeth each: Group Group I positive control, Group II diode laser irradiation, Group III 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Group IV 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and diode laser irradiation. Irrigation of each group followed by the splitting the tooth into two halves were done within a lumina air flow chamber using chisel and a mallet. Prepared teeth samples from each group were then subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy to the horizontal depth of penetration of various irrigation into dentinal tubules. Results: The horizontal depth of penetration of various irrigants were calculated in each group and statistical analysis done using Kruskal Wallis test for group comparison. The group where irrigation was done with 2.5% NaOCl, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and irradiation with high power diode laser performed against Enterococcus faecalis showed the best results when compared with other groups. Conclusion: The horizontal depth of penetration was more when 2.5% NaOCl, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate in combination with 810nm diode laser was used.Hence this combination can be used for effective disinfection of the root canal system during chemomechanical preparation. Clinical Relevance To Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Combination of NaOCl ,Chlorhexidine gluconate and Laser can be used for effective disinfection of the root canal system during chemomechanical preparation before we give a final restoration
  • Prognosis of the root canal therapy will be better with prevention of reinfection with this combination of irrigant
  • Prolonged action of this combination of irrigants with laser which penetrate deep into radicular dentinal tubules will maintain the sterility of root canal system.
  1 1,882 406
Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class V cavities using various glass ionomer cements: An in vitro study
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Jaya Gupta, Vidya Saraswathi, Vasudev Ballal, Shashi Rashmi Acharya
September-December 2012, 2(3):164-169
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113245  
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the microleakage of nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer restorative (nano-filled RMGI) in comparison with that of conventional glass ionomer cement (CGIC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Materials and Methods: Forty-five standardized Class V cavity preparations were prepared on sound extracted human molar teeth. Teeth were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 15 teeth each and restored as follows: Group 1, CGIC; Group 2, RMGIC; and Group 3, nano-filled RMGI. The specimens were placed in a solution of 2% Rhodamine-B dye for 24 h at room temperature under vacuum. Staining along the tooth restoration interface was recorded. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in dye leakage between all the three restorative materials for occlusal margins (P = 0.464). Group 3 showed significantly less microleakage compared to Group 1 (P = 0.007) and Group 2 (P = 0.040) at the gingival margins. The degree of microleakage in the gingival margins of each group was more than that found in occlusal margins. Conclusions: No material was able to completely eliminate microleakage at enamel, dentin, or cementum margin. Nano-filled RMGI showed least microleakage compared to other two cements at gingival margins. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Cervical lesions have been a restorative challenge for dentists for many years.
  • An interdisciplinary treatment approach is the appropriate choice in cases where there is gingival recession and cervical lesions.
  • Glass ionomer cements have been commonly used for restoration of cervical lesions.
  • Nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer cement can be used for the restoration of cervical lesions, as it has a better marginal sealing ability compared to conventional glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.
  1 5,728 871
Profilometric study to compare the effectiveness of various finishing and polishing techniques on different restorative glass ionomer cements
Puttur Laxmish Mallya, Shashirashmi Acharya, Vasudev Ballal, Kishore Ginjupalli, M Kundabala, Manuel Thomas
May-August 2013, 3(2):86-90
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126867  
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness of different types of glass ionomer (GI) restorative cements. Materials and Methods: Surface roughness of conventional, resin modified and nano-ionomer cements was evaluated after different polishing regimens. Totally 20 specimens of 12 mm thick and 10 mm diameter were prepared using Teflon mold. Prepared specimens were subjected to polishing (n = 5) by Sof-Lex discs, diamond finishing points and 30-fluted carbide burs. Control specimens did not receive any polishing treatment, but mylar trip was used as matrix. Average surface roughness (Ra) in micrometers was measured using Surtronic 3 + profilometer. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Control specimens (mylar strip) showed least Ra values followed by Sof-Lex disc, carbide finishing burs and diamond finishing points with all types of glass ionomer cements used in the study. Among the GIs tested, Nano-ionomer showed least Ra followed by resin-modified GI and conventional GI. Conclusion: Mylar strip produced the smoothest surface on all the GIs tested. Nano-Ionomer showed the best polish ability with least Ra values. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Glass ionomer cements (GIC) is one of the most commonly used direct restorative material used in non-stress bearing areas especially to restore cervical lesion at tooth gingival interface
  • Polished GIC surface reduces plaque accumulation and thus decreases the incidence of gingival inflammation and thereby prevents periodontal problems
  • Finishing and polishing of the GIC enhances the longevity and color stability of the restoration.
  1 2,103 285
Self reported knowledge and practice of inter dental aids among group of dental students, Tumkur, India
Darshana Bennadi, Mythri Halappa, Nandita Kshetrimayum
September-December 2013, 3(3):159-162
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.131202  
Objectives : To evaluate knowledge and practice of inter dental aids among a group of dental students in Tumkur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among dental students using questionnaire. Results: 84.6% dental students brushed their teeth twice daily. 74% students had knowledge regarding inter dental aids where as only 18% of the students practiced it. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among students of different years in the knowledge and practice of inter dental aids. Conclusions: Among dental students, the overall knowledge of inter dental aids was good, even though there were deficits in knowledge in a few areas. The knowledge and practice of inter dental aids improved with increasing levels of education. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  1. Dental health is highly an individualized concept and dental student become a role model for oral health.
  2. Most of the studies have shown the oral health behavior of dental students giving importance to routine brushing aids and knowledge.
  3. The present study deals with knowledge and practice of interdental aids by dental students and recommends change in dental curriculum mainly subject of Preventive dentistry.
  4. Students have to be informed how to use that knowledge in the real life.
  1 1,523 199
Evaluation of bioactive glass and autogenous bone in the treatment of Grade II furcation involvement: A randomized controlled trial
Sally Abd El-Meniem El-Haddad, Mona Yehia Abd-El Razzak, Hussein Ibrahem Saudi, Nada Mohammad El Ghorab
January-April 2014, 4(1):13-23
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.134999  
Introduction: Furcation involvement is an inflammatory process that results in a breakdown of the supporting connective tissue and bone as a result of extension of periodontal destruction between the roots of multi-rooted teeth. Class II furcation lesions are a challenging scenario for periodontal therapy and a serious threat for tooth prognosis where the teeth mortality has been reported to occur more frequently in furcated teeth than in similar teeth without furcation defects. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bioactive glass (BG) grafting material versus autogenous bone grafting in the treatment of Grade II furcation involvement clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with buccal mandibular Grade II furcation involvement were divided- by a split-mouth design- into three groups; group (Gp) I involved 30 sites grafted with BG; Gp II involved 30 sites grafted with autogenous bone and Gp III involved 10 sites treated with scaling and root planing only after flap reflection. Results: The postoperative healing periods were, generally uneventful with no postoperative complications. At the last follow-up period, the previous furcation sites were covered with healthy gingiva and there was a great reduction in the surface area of the furcation defects with a marked increase in the gray level in both Gp I and II with no significant difference, while there was a statistically significant difference between Gp I and Gp III and between Gp II and Gp III at 3 months and at 6 months of follow-up periods. Conclusion: The use of BG and autogenous bone grafts has better outcomes in the treatment of Grade II furcation involvement when compared with open debridement alone. The use of bony glass has nearly the same successful outcomes of the autogenous bone graft; however, it is less traumatic to the patient. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Periodontal regenerative procedure using bioactive glass material can be performed to enhance bone formation
  • Class II furcation lesions are a challenging scenario for periodontal therapy and a serious threat for tooth prognosis.
  1 3,196 385
Comparative evaluation of effect of three different mineral trioxide aggregate solvents on calcium content of root dentin: An in vitro study
Payal Batavia, Vaishali Parekh, Palak Batavia, Paras Kothari, Hetal Chappla, Mayurika Dabhi
January-April 2014, 4(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.134998  
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the calcium content of solutions of three different mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) solvents after immersion of root dentin at different time interval. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 extracted premolars were used in the study. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm using hard tissue microtome. One section was selected from each tooth. 12 sections were then immersed in the freshly prepared 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 17% carbonic acid, and 10% citric acid. Calcium dissolution was checked at different time interval of 10 and 15 min and 32 h with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and multiple comparisons were carried out by Tukey's test. Results: About 17% carbonic acid showed maximum calcium dissolution followed by 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid. There was significantly difference in result. Conclusion: About 17% carbonic acid used for MTA retrieval can cause calcium dissolution of dentin and lessen the strength. Clinical Significance Mineral trioxide aggregate is bioactive material used widely for different clinical use, it has major disadvantage of retrieval. There are different solvents used for the same. Those may affect the organic content of dentin.
  1 1,969 307
REVIEW ARTICLE
Questionable abutments: General considerations, changing trends in treatment planning and available options
D Krishna Prasad, Chethan Hegde, Anshul Bardia, D Anupama Prasad
January-April 2013, 3(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.120516  
Abutment teeth are called upon to withstand the forces normally directed to the missing teeth, in addition to those usually applied to the abutments. Whenever possible, an abutment should be a vital tooth. Normally, teeth with active periodontal problem should not be used as abutment teeth. The use of multiple splinted abutment teeth, non-rigid connectors or intermediate abutments makes the procedure much more difficult and often the result compromises the long-term prognosis. In cases where tooth preparation cannot solve the problem, the use of various attachments and a telescopic retainer must be considered. Understanding the basic concepts of how to retain various restorative components and how to protect the remaining tooth structure, will enable us to answer the numerous questionable situations that arise during the restorative process will be facilitated. Thus, this will result in final restorations that are based on sound design principles. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Fixed prosthetic treatments are always dependent upon the support they receive from abutment teeth. Abutment teeth should have sufficient coronal structure to provide retention to the prosthesis. It might sometimes be necessary to expose or increase the clinical crown by periodontal surgery for support and esthetics. It is also seen that many a times the teeth are supra erupted as a result of absence of opposing dentition which calls for the need of intentional endodontic treatment. By a combination of treatments with interdisciplinary dentistry, we will succeed in providing a functional prosthesis which fulfils esthetic and restorative needs.
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Research design hierarchy: Strength of evidence in evidence-based dentistry
BH Mithun Pai, G Rajesh, Ramya Shenoy
September-December 2012, 2(3):158-163
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.113243  
As practitioners, thinking critically about how we make clinical decisions is important. As educators, we should evaluate how to teach students to make clinical decisions. To make clinical decisions, and to practice modern dentistry and to educate the dental care professionals, the evidence-based dentistry forms an important asset. The cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare and health technology assessment is critical appraisal of the evidence underpinning a finding. The hierarchy of evidence includes several types of studies used to evaluate treatment effects, starting from case reports, observational studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the tip of which are systematic reviews, which constitute the highest level of evidence because they attempt to collect, combine, and report the best available evidence using systematic, transparent, and reproducible methodology. Clinicians are interested in the highest quality research report available to determine the "best therapy" for their patients. This article will assist in framing the questions and categorizing the best available evidence. A search was initiated to locate original research articles, review articles, and case reports pertaining to the key words: Evidence-based dentistry, hierarchy of evidence, ladder of evidence, research design hierarchy, strength of evidence. Electronic database was retrieved from PubMed , Google and Google Scholar to search and select keywords related to evidence-based medicine and dentistry. The keywords used were evidence based dentistry, research design hierarchy, evidence based practice, and strength of evidence. This article is the result of a literature study on evidence-based research design hierarchy. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach gaining ground after 1992; hence, its usefulness in any discipline is worth the attention.
  • This article explores links between the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP and describes strategies to accelerate the translation of evidence across disciplines.
  • This paper examines the concept of hierarchy of research design, barriers and challenges and applying evidence based dentistry in practice.
  1 6,733 671
Short implants: A new dimension in rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla and mandible
Sanath Shetty, Naushad Puthukkat, S Vidya Bhat, K Kamalakanth Shenoy
May-August 2014, 4(2):66-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.142935  
Insufficient alveolar bone height is a common clinical situation encountered more in the posterior jaws. Advanced surgical procedures such as bone grafting, sinus lifting, and nerve repositioning are required to overcome this condition and make implant treatment possible for such patients. Prolonged healing period, increased morbidity, and longer duration of the implant treatment accompanies these procedures. Short implants are considered as a viable alternative in patients with reduced alveolar bone height to avoid more invasive surgical procedures. They simplify the implant treatment, reduce patient morbidity, shorten the duration of treatment, and make it less expensive. In the past, when machined implants were used, rehabilitation with short implants showed increased failure rate in comparison to longer implants. With the improvements in the surface topography of implants, which increase the bone implant contact, and use of adapted surgical protocols similar survival rates as that of regular implants have been reported even with short implants. Various methods to increase the functional surface area and decrease the stress on the prosthesis have greatly contributed to the increased success rate of short implants. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
  • Successful outcome of implant treatment depends on the coordinated efforts of various specialties
  • Proper technique of implant placement by the surgeon and prior planning of the prosthesis by the prosthodontist is essential
  • Maintenance and periodic evaluation of periodontal health are necessary.
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    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Biominerals in restorative dentistry
    Neeta Shetty, M Kundabala
    May-August 2013, 3(2):64-70
    DOI:10.4103/2229-5194.126858  
    Restorative treatment strategies are being developed to repair and replace lost tooth structures and surrounding bone. The teeth under goes a constant cycle of demineralization and remineralization, but this natural remineralization process is inadequate to prevent progression of dental caries. Hence there is a need to supplement the tooth with a biomaterial which is bio inert or bioactive to remineralize, repair or regenerate the tissues of tooth. Calcium hydroxide is considered the gold standard material for repair of dentin, which is presently being replaced by materials with superior properties such as mineral trioxide aggregate. Biomaterials such as calcium phosphate cements are been advocated as bone substitute material because of properties such as biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and moldability. This review deals with the physiochemical properties of some of the biomineral based biomaterials which are currently used for repair, replacement or regeneration of hard tissues of teeth and bone. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry
    • Synthetic biomaterials containing biominerals are used in dentistry to repair and regenerate hard tissues of the teeth and bone.
    • Biomaterials containing biominerals are routinely used by specialist from various fields of dentistry such as restorative dentistry, periodontics and oral surgery.
    • Biomineral based biomaterials are used for direct and indirect pulp capping procedures, as an intracanal medicament in root canals, root perforation repair, periapical surgeries, repair of bony defects.
      1 3,342 693
    * Source: CrossRef
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