J Interdiscip Dentistry
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2019
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 97-138

Online since Friday, December 20, 2019

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GUEST EDITORIAL  

A little goes a long way: The cruise of platelet concentrates in dentistry p. 97
Kavitha Mahendran
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_61_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of glycemic control on periodontal disease and caries experience in diabetic patients: A pilot study p. 99
Afolabi Oyapero, Abiola Adetokunbo Adeniyi, Oyinkansola Sofola, Anthonia Okeoghene Ogbera
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_67_18  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a diverse set of metabolic disorders initiated by either a lack of insulin, opposition to its action, or both. The aim of this study was to assess the association between glycemic control and the periodontal/caries status of controlled diabetic patients at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight diabetic patients with good glycemic control demonstrated by three consecutive results in their medical records and who gave informed consent were enlisted and screened for periodontal disease and dental caries. Glycemic control was assessed using fasting blood sugar, 2-h postprandial, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac). Caries was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) while oral hygiene index, gingival index (GI), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and probing pocket depth (PPD) were used to assess periodontal health. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and test of statistical significance was done using Chi-square test and ANOVA test. A P ≤ 0.05 was recorded as statistically significant. Results: The PPD and CAL of the participants were significantly associated with their glycemic levels. Those with increased glycemic values had greater attachment loss and pocket depth. Gingival inflammation and oral hygiene were however not significantly associated with glycemic control. Respondents above 65 years similarly had significantly higher numbers of missing teeth (P = 0.04) and greater mean DMFT values (P = 0.03). Similarly, respondents above 66 years of age, those who had no education, and females were observed to have worse oral hygiene, gingival inflammation, and periodontal destruction evidenced by CAL and PPD than other respondents, even though the association was not significant. Conclusion: Oral health manifestations of diabetes need to be emphasized like other systemic diabetic complications. The salient role of glycemic control in periodontal health should also be continuously emphasized among diabetics.
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A comparative study of stress distribution between glass fiber post and cast post in an endodontically treated central incisor – A finite element analysis p. 108
N Vignesh, S Lakshmi, H Annapoorani, Padmashini Gnanam
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_35_19  
Background: Endodontically treated teeth with severe loss of tooth structure require post and core restorations for retention purposes. The post system includes components of different rigidity because the rigid component is able to withstand forces without distortion and the stress is transferred to less rigid substrate. The difference between the elastic modulus of dentin and the post material may be a source of stress for root structures. The use of post systems that have an elastic modulus similar to that of dentin result in the creation of a mechanically homogenous unit with better biomechanical performance. Thus the post and core material affects stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth.Aims and Objectives: In this study, FEA is used to evaluate the fracture resistance in an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor that was restored with two different post systems – 1) prefabricated glass fiber post and 2) custom made cast post. The qualitative stress distribution analyses were recorded by von Mises criteria. Results: von Mises stress in an intact tooth was concentrated in the crown near the cingulum under oblique load and on the incisal edge with vertical load. With horizontal load- In the crown region, maximum von Mises stress was observed in both the cast post and fiber post. Within the post region, maximum von Mises stress was observed in cast post when compared to fiber post. In the root dentin, more von Mises stress was observed in fiber post when compared to cast post. Conclusion: 1)Stress distribution is similar between cast post and fiber post during vertical load. 2)Cast metal post dissipates less stress to the dentin and gives better fracture resistance to the tooth when compared to glass fiber post during oblique loading. When considering the stress pattern, maximum stress was observed in the cervical region of the crown and in the area of load application during oblique and vertical loading.
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Comparative evaluation of two manual toothbrushes with different bristle designs for plaque removal efficacy in females – A clinical study p. 114
Lata Prabhu Warad, Chitra Laxmikant Patil, Aishwarya Parag Dabholkar, Deepthi Thottungal Rajan, Ghodke Monali
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_12_19  
Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze and asses the plaque removal efficacy of two manual toothbrushes with different bristle designs among female clinical undergraduate students in Virajpet, Coorg. Materials and Methods: Thirty female undergraduate dental students with a minimum of twenty teeth with good general health were included in the study. The efficacy of two manual toothbrushes with round and zigzag bristles of “medium” type 0.009″ (0.3 mm) was compared using a randomized clinical trial for 5 days. The participants were assessed for plaque prior to brushing according to the Criteria of Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modification of Quigley–Hein plaque index. On the 5th day, postbrushing plaque scores were assessed. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 software. Results: No significant difference was found in the mean values of plaque removal efficacy between round and zigzag bristle toothbrushes.
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Bacteriological correlation between dental plaque and chronic tonsillitis p. 119
Muath K Al-Otaibi, Suhael Ahmed, Fawaz A Al-Abdullah, Omar M Sabbagh, Jarallah M Al-Qahtani, Faisal H Al-Mutairi, Mohammed A Al-Ansari, Abdulghani S Al-Zahrani, Yazeed A Al-Furaydi, Abdullah A Al-Duhaymi, Salah Mohammed, Yasser Al-Otaibi, Nafeesa Tabassum
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_5_19  
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of supragingival dental plaque bacteria as potential etiology of chronic tonsillitis. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty patients were part of the study. Among them, thirty patients had chronic tonsillitis and thirty patients had no tonsillitis. The age range was 3–12 years. Swab samples were obtained from dental plaque and tonsils to identify the bacterial flora. Identification methods included metabolic capability, microscopic reading, and biochemical reaction. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 18 software. Results: The bacteria isolated according to the prevalence in decreasing order of frequency were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Candida albicans, and Peptostreptococcus. Statistical analysis conducted with SPSS 22 indicated that strains of bacteria present in the plaque are more likely to represent the bacteria in the tonsils, particularly S. pyogenes.Conclusion: Group A Streptococcus in dental plaque could possibly be a causative factor for chronic tonsillitis.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Prosthetics and speech therapy in patients with a high-Arched palate p. 125
Shilpi Sanghvi, Gaurang Mistry, Asha M Rathod, Naina Swarup
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_38_19  
The prosthodontic rehabilitation of patients postcleft palate repair is an important part of the multidisciplinary approach to solving the many problems related to total health. One such problem is speech difficulties and articulation errors. High-arched palate associated with cleft palate repair affects phonation and articulation by affecting the approximation of its surface with the tongue. This results in unintelligible and hypernasal sound production. Palatogram is a fairly simple, yet highly efficacious clinical technique for the assessment of palatal contours, to improve the existent speech deficiencies of affected sounds. This case report demonstrates a multidisciplinary treatment approach to successfully improve the intelligibility of speech by fabrication of a speech appliance by making a palatogram and customizing the palatal contours.
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Bone-enhanced periodontal plastic surgery: A case series p. 130
Yamini Rajachandrasekaran, Meenakshi Adhappan, Nithya Anand, Bagavad Gita, Geeth Deepika
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_64_18  
In recent years, esthetics has become apparently a crucial attribute in the periodontal treatment and is paving the way for newer modalities in the management of gingival recession. Gingival recession is one of the pivotal soft tissue problems that often constitute a challenge to a periodontist. The prognostic predictability in the management of gingival recession has been questionable when adequate bone support is not available. This case series propounds a technique that combines periodontal plastic surgery along with bone grafts, to give space for soft tissue coverage and adequate support. Case series brings a novel technique to the limelight, wherein bone substitutes are added to the conventional periodontal plastic surgical procedures, to enhance support for the soft tissue. Case series includes three patients with Millers Class II and Class III recession, involves a technique, which combines xenograft along with any one of the conventional plastic surgical procedures such as coronally advanced flap or pedicle flap. Pre- and post-operatively, clinical and radiographical parameters were evaluated. Satisfactory Clinical outcome was obtained when bone substitute were added to conventional periodontal plastic surgeries for root coverage and hence it prerequisites the need for long term evaluation.
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Prosthetic rehabilitation of an orbital defect: A clinical report p. 135
Preethi Kusugal, VN Kalaivani, Viraj Patil, Vankadara Sivakumar
DOI:10.4103/jid.jid_15_19  
Prosthetic rehabilitation of an orbital defect plays an important role in restoring aesthetics of the face. The eye is a vital organ, the loss of which requires a tailored approach for postdefect rehabilitation. Advance treatment modalities such as implant-supported orbital prosthesis have a superior outcome in terms of retention and esthetics, but due to economic factor, it is not affordable for all patients. This case report describes a simplified method for the rehabilitation of a patient with an orbital defect where retention is obtained by eyeglasses achieving satisfactory esthetics.
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