J Interdiscip Dentistry
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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-18

Awareness toward replacement of teeth, duration of use, and maintenance of dental prosthesis among adult rural population in mangalore taluk


1 Department of Prosthodontics Including Crown and Bridge and Implantology, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication18-Feb-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mallika S Shetty
Department of Prosthodontics Including Crown and Bridge and Implantology, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jid.jid_74_18

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   Abstract 


Background: Oral health is always an inseparable part of general health and awareness plays a vital role in determining the oral health of individual. The estimation of treatment need is also an important requirement in oral health care planning. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1312 participants aged 18 years and above. Sixteen Gram panchayats were selected by simple random sampling a house-to-house survey was conducted to determine the awareness toward replacement of teeth among the rural population of Mangalore Taluk, Karnataka State, India. The survey pro forma was designed to collect information regarding the demographic profile, educational status, occupation, teeth missing, whether replaced with artificial substitute, and reason for not replacing the missing teeth. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-squared test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as expensive. Among males, majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “No time to visit the dentist.” Among all the age groups, gender and education multi-unit prosthesis was needed predominantly in the upper and lower arches. Conclusion: The general public should also be made aware of the free dental treatment facilities available in the health-care centers and dental institutions and hospitals. Dental professionals should promote oral health care in rural areas by conducting health awareness programs on consequences of edentulous, importance of retaining, replacing, and maintenance of teeth.

Keywords: Awareness, edentulism, oral health, rehabilitation, rural population


How to cite this article:
Shetty MS, Panchmal GS, Shenoy K K. Awareness toward replacement of teeth, duration of use, and maintenance of dental prosthesis among adult rural population in mangalore taluk. J Interdiscip Dentistry 2019;9:15-8

How to cite this URL:
Shetty MS, Panchmal GS, Shenoy K K. Awareness toward replacement of teeth, duration of use, and maintenance of dental prosthesis among adult rural population in mangalore taluk. J Interdiscip Dentistry [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 26];9:15-8. Available from: http://www.jidonline.com/text.asp?2019/9/1/15/252531




   Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry Top


Knowledge and awareness about denture maintenance, replacement of old dental prosthesis, denture use, and care of ridges among the general public plays an important role in maintaining the oral and general health of the individual. One should be made aware of the free dental treatment facilities available in the healthcare centers and dental institutions and hospitals. Conducting health awareness programs on consequences of edentulousness, importance of retaining, replacing, and maintenance of teeth will promote oral health care in rural areas.


   Introduction Top


Oral health is always an inseparable part of general health, and awareness plays a vital role in determining the oral health of individual. Poor oral health and loss of teeth especially, complete loss or edentulism, is equivalent to the dental death.[1] Thus, tooth loss causes residual ridge resorption leading to decreased masticatory function affecting the dietary intake, nutritional status, and feeling of old age thus compromising the general health. The attitude of the patient toward the replacement of teeth should be assessed to educate the patient accordingly and improve patient compliance with acceptance of prosthesis.[2] The estimation of treatment need is also an important requirement in oral health-care planning. With this information, it is possible to assess future treatment needs and demands for services. The need for dental prosthesis varies from patient to patient depending on their age, sex, occupation, socioeconomic background, and literacy. Rehabilitative treatment is successful only when patients are motivated and made aware of various prosthodontic treatments available, its use and maintenance.

Studies have reported several reasons for nonreplacement of teeth, and financial constraint is the most common reason as reported by Shigli et al., (365 participants)[3] (19.7%) and Raj et al., (149 participants)[4] (86.5%). Studies by Singh and Tripathi (227 participants)[5] and Menezes and Aras[6] revealed that 19.6% men and 21.5% women were not aware of the prosthodontic treatment. The studies done so far involved participants not more than 365, which indicates need for involving a larger population.

Social relevance

Data on the prevalence of oral health among the adult rural population in Mangalore taluk are unavailable. With five institutions and several rural health centers in Mangalore, whether the patients are seeking treatment will be detected. If the patients are not seeking treatment the reason for the same will be detected. Thus, the present study aims to assess the awareness and attitude for replacement and treatment need in relation to age, gender, and education level of the study population.


   Subjects and Methods Top


Mangalore is one among the five taluks of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India, located in southwestern part of Karnataka. The rural population of Mangalore Taluk has 281,777 people (135,470 males and 146,307 females) as obtained from the Census of India 2001.[7] As per the information obtained from Karnataka district profile, Mangalore Taluk has 100 villages and 49 gram panchayats.[8] Of 49 gram panchayats, 16 gram panchayats were selected randomly. Based on the inclusion criteria, a door-to-door survey was conducted in each and every house till a target of 82 individuals aged 18 years and above was achieved. They were interviewed and examined. The study involved the completion of a predesigned and structured pro forma. The survey pro forma was designed to collect information regarding the demographic profile, educational status, occupation, teeth missing, whether replaced with artificial substitute and the reason for not replacing the missing teeth. Before beginning with the survey, official permission was obtained from the District Health Officer of Mangalore Taluk. The data gathered were analyzed using Chi-squared test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


   Results Top


A total of 1312 study participants (520 males [41%] and 792 females [59%]) aged 18 years and above formed the study population. The mean age was 49.1 and standard deviation was 14.8 and the modal value of age is 40. In the study population, 97.7% had missing teeth (complete and partial) and 45.2% replaced them with dental prosthesis.

The distribution of study subjects according to awareness and attitude toward prosthetic replacement in relation to age group as shown in [Table 1] reveals that the majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as expensive. In the 46–60-year age group, maximum number of subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “did not feel the need.”
Table 1: Awareness and attitude towards prosthetic replacement in relation to age group

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Distribution of study subjects according to awareness and attitude toward prosthetic replacement in relation to gender as shown in [Table 2] reveals that among males majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “No time to visit the dentist” followed by “expensive.” Among females majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “expensive” followed by “did not feel the need” for treatment.
Table 2: Awareness and attitude towards prosthetic replacement in relation to gender

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Distribution of study subjects according to awareness and attitude toward prosthetic replacement in relation to education as shown in [Table 3] reveals that when the attitude toward nonreplacement of teeth was evaluated it was found to be highly significant. Among illiterates, primary and secondary educated, the reason for nonreplacement was given as “expensive.” Among pre-university level educated and graduates the reason for nonreplacement was given “no time” for treatment.
Table 3: Awareness and attitude toward prosthetic replacement in relation to education level

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When the need for treatment was evaluated, it was found that among all the age groups multi-unit prosthesis was needed predominantly in the upper and lower arches.

Among the study population, 46.4% were dental prosthetic wearers. Out of which, 42.4% had discomfort with the prosthesis, 45.8% had food lodgment in their dental prosthesis.

When the awareness toward denture cleansing habit was assessed, it was found that 2.2% did not clean the dental prosthesis, 19.5% cleaned with water, 78.3% cleaned using toothbrush and toothpaste/soap, none of the subjects used denture cleaning pellets.

When the duration of denture use was assessed 24% wore the dental prosthesis for less than a year, 54% wore between 1 and 5 years and 22% wore for more than 5 years.


   Discussion Top


In the present study, only 17% of the subjects were not aware of the treatment, which shows that majority of the subjects were aware of the prosthodontic treatment. This may be due to the increase in technology and media. When asked about the attitude toward the replacement, even though the participants had the knowledge about the need for replacement, majority of them did not undergo treatment mainly due to financial constraint (33.5%) which is in agreement with the study by Parlani et al.,[9] where 20.5% were not aware of the prosthodontic treatment and 25.2% did not replace their missing teeth, due to financial constraint.

In the present study, 4.4% of the study participants aged more than 61 years of age reported the reason as unable to visit the dentist for treatment. The barriers to dental care reported by the elderly were that they lived in rural areas and had a distance to travel to the dentist; they required a companion to escort them to the dentist, reduced mobility, hearing and/or speaking difficulties which hamper communication with the dentist. These reasons are in agreement with the study by Woods et al.[10]

In the present study, among males, majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “No time to visit the dentist.” Among females, majority of the subjects gave the reason for nonreplacement as “expensive.” About 17.4% males and 16.9% females were not aware of the prosthodontic treatment (P < 0.001). A study by Singh andTripathi,[5] revealed that 19.6% males and 21.5% females were not aware of the prosthodontic treatment.

In the present study, among illiterates, primary and secondary educated, the reason for nonreplacement was given as expensive. Among study participants educated up to preuniversity level and graduates the reason for nonreplacement was given as no time for treatment. Although the educated group was aware of the treatment required, they did not have time for treatment.

When denture cleansing habit was evaluated, the present study showed that majority of the study participants cleaned the prosthesis using toothbrush and toothpaste or soap (78.3%), followed by cleaning with water (19.5%), which is in agreement with the studies by Michele Lolita et al.,[11] and Cakan et al.[12] The reason for the use of mechanical method could be attributed to the fact that many people employed toothbrush and paste for dental hygiene and could easily adapt this for care of their dentures as they transit from dentate to edentulous state.

In the present study, 2.2% of participants did not use any aid to clean the dental prosthesis, none of the subjects used denture cleansing pellets, may due to higher cost and lack of consumer awareness of the product. Whereas in a study by Dikbas et al.,[13] Apratim et al.,[14] and Cakan et al.[12] (11.9%, 10.4%, and 22.1%) of respondents used denture cleansing pellets, respectively. Studies by Milward et al.,[15] Cakan et al.[12] revealed the use of chemical methods of denture cleansing in addition to mechanical methods, but in the Indian scenario none of them used chemical denture cleansers which might be due to the lack of information received about chemical denture cleansers from the treating dentists as well as lack of availability of such cleansers in the local market.

In the present study, the oldest denture age was 28 years. Nevertheless, many subjects did not wish to have them replaced.


   Conclusion Top


Even though the majority of the participants had the knowledge about the need for replacement, they did not undergo treatment mainly due to financial constraint.

The evaluation of duration of use and wear of dental prosthesis revealed lack of knowledge about denture maintenance, replacement of old dental prosthesis, denture use, and care of ridges.

The general public should also be made aware of the free dental treatment facilities available in the health-care centers and dental institutions and hospitals. Dental professionals should promote oral health care in rural areas by conducting health awareness programs on consequences of edentulousness, importance of retaining, replacing, and maintenance of teeth.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Nadgere J, Doshi AG, Kishore S. An evaluation of prosthetic status and prosthetic need amongst people living in and around Panvel, Navi-Mumbai - A survey. Int J Prosthet Dent 2010;1:16-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shigli K, Hebbal M, Angadi GS. Attitudes towards replacement of teeth among patients at the institute of dental sciences, Belgaum, India. J Dent Educ 2007;71:1467-75.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Shigli K, Angadi GS, Hebbal M. Knowledge of prosthodontic treatment among denture-wearers and non-denture-wearers attending a dental institute in India: A survey report. Gerodontology 2007;24:211-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Raj N, Reddy N, Japatti S, Thomas M, Uthappa R. Knowledge, attitudes towards prosthodontics rehabilitation and utilization of dental services among Songadh and Amargadh population. J Dent Med Med Sci 2014;3:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Singh SV, Tripathi A. A study on prosthodontic awareness and needs of an aging Indian rural population. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2007;7:21-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
  [Full text]  
6.
Menezes M, Aras M. Prosthodontic awareness and fulfillment of prosthodontic need in rural areas of Goa. J Indian Dent Assoc 2009;11:368.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Census of India 2001, District Population Booklet, Dakshina Kannada. Population Profile-District/Taluk/Town/Village.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Available from: http://www.kar.nic.in/zpdk, District profile.2. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 08].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Parlani S, Tripathi A, Singh SV. Increasing the prosthodontic awareness of an aging Indian rural population. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:367-70.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
10.
Woods N, Helton H, Crowley T. An aging population - Have you got an oral health policy. Ir J Public Policy 2009;1:101-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Michele Lolita Y, Ashu Michael A, Hubert N, Florence D, Jacques B. Oral health status of the elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon. Int J Dent 2015;2015:820416.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Cakan U, Yuzbasioglu E, Kurt H, Kara HB, Turunç R, Akbulut A, et al. Assessment of hygiene habits and attitudes among removable partial denture wearers in a university hospital. Niger J Clin Pract 2015;18:511-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.
Dikbas I, Koksal T, Calikkocaoglu S. Investigation of the cleanliness of dentures in a university hospital. Int J Prosthodont 2006;19:294-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Apratim A, Shah SS, Sinha M, Agrawal M, Chhaparia N, Abubakkar A, et al. Denture hygiene habits among elderly patients wearing complete dentures. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14:1161-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Milward P, Katechia D, Morgan MZ. Knowledge of removable partial denture wearers on denture hygiene. Br Dent J 2013;215:E20.  Back to cited text no. 15
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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