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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-30

Golden touch for gingivitis - Alternative medicine therapy for bleeding gums


Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication29-May-2017

Correspondence Address:
Ann Vazhayil George
Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Narayanapuram, Pallikaranai, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jid.jid_23_17

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   Abstract 

Background: Plants have been the major source of medicine since time immemorial. Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a herb known for its medicinal properties and is more acceptable and viable option for a common man. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of golden paste, a combination of turmeric, virgin coconut oil, and black pepper as a monotherapy in treating gingivitis. Methodology: 30 patients within the age group of 25-45 years diagnosed with chronic gingivitis and were administered with golden paste as monotherapy in comparison to scaling and golden paste by using a split mouth study design. Bleeding index and gingival index were evaluated at baseline, 14 days and 21 days. Results: A significant reduction in GI and BI is seen in scaling and golden paste group in comparison to golden paste used as monotherapy.

Keywords: Coconut oil, Curcuma longa, piperine


How to cite this article:
George AV, Valiathan M, Chandrasekaran S C, Anand N. Golden touch for gingivitis - Alternative medicine therapy for bleeding gums. J Interdiscip Dentistry 2017;7:27-30

How to cite this URL:
George AV, Valiathan M, Chandrasekaran S C, Anand N. Golden touch for gingivitis - Alternative medicine therapy for bleeding gums. J Interdiscip Dentistry [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Jun 26];7:27-30. Available from: http://www.jidonline.com/text.asp?2017/7/1/27/207151


   Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry Top


Traditional medicines dictate that various Ayurvedic, Siddha medicaments could be efficacious in treating gingival and oral diseases. A holistic approach combining herbal products with conventional mechanical therapy could be the way to successful management of gingivitis.


   Introduction Top


Plants have been the major source of medicine since time immemorial.

Turmeric (the common name for Curcuma longa) is an Indian spice derived from the rhizomes of the plant and has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions.[1] Turmeric has been attributed with a number of medicinal properties, popularly used in the traditional system of medicine. Extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine. Used as remedies for various conditions such as anorexia, cough, diabetic wound, hepatic disorders, and in periodontal disease by preventing plaque formation and gingivitis.[2]

Virgin coconut oil is used in oil pulling in Ayurveda. Swishing of coconut oil in the mouth prevents from decay, bleeding gums, reduction of plaque and bacterial count in gingivitis. Oil acts a cleanser and has a detoxifying effect. When put in mouth, it “pulls” out bacteria and other debris. Coconut oil contains 92% saturated acids, approximately 50% of which is lauric acid. Recently, results from many studies revealed that the monolaurin, the monoglycerides of lauric acid from coconut oil had antimicrobial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.[3]

Golden paste is a turmeric-based paste that taken orally provides health benefits to humans as well as animals. A combination of turmeric, virgin coconut oil, and black pepper constitutes the golden paste. This was developed by Doug English, a veterinarian who has utilized the ancient healing spice in all manner of animals. The absorption of turmeric is improved by cooking the paste, and by the inclusion of oil and more effective with addition of pepper, all this incorporated in golden paste. The aim of this study is to find the efficacy of golden paste in the maintenance of oral health and establishing its role in the treatment of gingivitis using a split-mouth study design.


   Materials and Methods Top


A total of thirty patients (males - 18, females - 12) within the age range of 20–45 years were selected from the outpatient pool of Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board. Patients who were diagnosed of having chronic gingivitis and who had considerably less amount of local factors were considered as eligible for the study. Exclusion criteria were the patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis, antibiotics intake or any form of periodontal treatment in the past 6 months, smoking habits, and pregnancy. A split-mouth study was carried out.

During the first visit, after obtaining informed consent from the patient, the clinical parameters; gingival index, and papillary bleeding index (BI) were recorded as baseline values. A split-mouth thorough scaling was done which included two quadrants on one side of the mouth, leaving the contralateral side. After which the golden paste was administered to the patients, and they were advised to apply and massage the entire gums for 2–3 min, and then to rinse the mouth with water. This was to be done twice a day, after brushing both in the morning and night and repeated for 28 consecutive days.

On the 14th day, patients were recalled for review, gingival index and papillary BI were scored. The patients were emphasized on the importance of routine plaque control, and the use of golden paste was reinforced. Moreover, on the 28th day, patients were recalled back, gingival index and papillary bleeding were noted, and a full mouth scaling was done for each patient. The clinical parameters assessed include clinical parameters that were recorded at baseline, 14th day, and the 28th day.

The split-mouth quadrants fell under the groups

  • Group A: Scaling with golden paste application
  • Group B: Golden paste application (monotherapy).



   Results Top


The mean baseline characteristics with a mean age group of 27.03 with 19 males and 11 females, also with mean gingival index of 1.9887 and mean BI of 2.215 [Table 1]a and [Table 1]b. Paired sample test done to elicit the difference between Group A and Group B which indicated that there is a significant difference between the two groups at day 21 with Group A (mean gingival index = 0.29) having more reduction in gingival index than in Group B (mean gingival index = 0.81) [Table 2] and [Figure 1]. Paired sample test used to compare the BI of Group A and Group B which indicates the significant reduction of BI between the group on day 21 with Group A having a greater reduction (mean BI = 0.048) than Group B (mean BI = 0.88) [Table 3] and [Figure 2].
Table 1:

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Table 2: Paired sample test to compare the gingival index between the two groups

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Figure 1: Gingival index of Group A and Group B on day 21

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Table 3: Paired sample test to compare the bleeding index between the two groups

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Figure 2: Bleeding index of Group A and Group B on day 21

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   Discussion Top


Turmeric contains a class of compounds known as the curcuminoids comprised curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.[4] Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid and comprises approximately 2%–5% of turmeric; it is responsible for the yellow color of the spice as well as majority of turmeric therapeutic effects. Curcumin, the active agent in golden paste, has an anti-inflammatory mechanism. It modulates the inflammatory response by downregulating the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 and lipoxygenase and inhibits the production of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12. Curcumin also reduces the neutrophil infiltration and inhibits platelet aggregation. The oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin has also been implicated in its anti-inflammatory effects. Lack of side effects with curcumin is its greatest advantage.[5]

The virgin coconut oil has monolaurin, monoglyceride of lauric acid which has microbial activity against Gram-positive and negative organism. It contains 92% saturated acids, approximately 50% of which is lauric acid. Human breast milk is the only other naturally occurring substance with such a high concentration of lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti-inflammatory effects and antimicrobial effect.[6],[7],[8] The viscosity of the oil can inhibit bacterial adhesion and plaque coaggregation and the oral benefits of virgin coconut oil include the prevention of dental caries, oral malodor, bleeding gums, and dryness of the throat and cracked lips.[9]

Black pepper is also used for medicinal purpose. Piperine [10] is the key chemical compound in black pepper and offers many health benefits. The black pepper in this mixture helps the body to absorb turmeric, and it is believed that even a small amount of black pepper boosts the bioavailability of turmeric to about 2000%.[10] The synergistic effect of these agents in the golden paste has been capitalized in protecting the cells from oxidative stress, supports the function of the immune system, and supports healthy skin and in the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

The present study being first of its kind aims to analyze the effects of golden paste as monotherapy in comparison to combination of scaling and golden paste in the reduction of gingival bleeding and inflammation. The results indicate a statistically significant reduction in gingival and BI on day 21 with greater reduction in parameters seen in the combination therapy group (Group A). This emphasizes that golden paste although having good anti-inflammatory properties proves to be more effective in combination with scaling to reduce bacterial load and inflammation. Limited sample size and short study duration are limitations of this study. Further long-term analysis and trials could establish the role of this novel material.


   Conclusion Top


Golden paste proves to be an effective topical application to reduce inflammation and bleeding in gingival disease preferably in combination with scaling.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Ammon HP, Wahl MA. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med 1991;57:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: A review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev 2009;14:141-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Arora RB, Kapoor V, Basu N, Jain AP. Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (turmeric). Indian J Med Res 1971;59:1289-95.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Lim-Sylianco CY. Anticacinogenic effect of coconut oil. Philipp J Coconut Stud 1987;12:89-102.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lampe V, Milobedeska J. Studies of Curcumin. Ber Dtsch Chem Ges 1913;46:2235-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:241-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ogbolu DO, Oni AA, Daini OA, Oloko AP.In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Med Food 2007;10:384-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Pehowich DJ, Gomes AV, Barnes JA. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents. West Indian Med J 2000;49:128-33.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Suresh D, Srinivasan K. Tissue distribution & elimination of capsaicin, piperine & curcumin following oral intake in rats. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:682-91.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.
Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med 1998;64:353-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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