J Interdiscip Dentistry
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-63

Toll-like receptors: A double edge sword


1 Department of Periodontology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital, Visnagar, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Sidhpur Dental College and Hospital, Sidhpur, India
3 Private Practitioner, Mehsana, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Mishal Piyush Shah
Department of Periodontology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital, Visnagar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2229-5194.126853

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Innate immunity is the first line of host defense and represents inherited resistance to infection. Innate immunity works through toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize the conserved molecular patterns on pathogenic bacteria known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The periodontium is a unique environment in which oral microorganisms are in constant contact with the host immune system. The TLRs present on gingival epithelial cells are continuously stimulated, resulting in production of cytokines and defensins that help to maintain oral health. If the epithelial barrier is breached, allowing invasion of bacteria into the underlying connective tissue, the TLRs on other resident and non-resident cells of the periodontium become activated. This leads to an exaggerated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other biological mediators, which may cause host tissue destruction. Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry Protecting periodontium during and after the restoration is very important. since, periodontal tissues are in continuous contact with oral microorganisms and through that to the host immune system. The TLRs present on gingival epithelial cells are continuously stimulated, resulting in production of cytokines that help to maintain oral health. If the epithelial barrier is breached, during the restorative procedures or due to impinging restorations, allowing invasion of bacteria into the underlying connective tissue, which may cause host tissue destruction.


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